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74 Cards in this Set

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Phineas Gage
Man who had a tamping iron through his frontal lobes causing a drastic shift from calm to unrestrained and rude.
CNS
Brain and spinal cord
PNS
The network of nerves that radiate from the central nervous system to the rest of the body. This comprises the somatic and the autonomic nervous systems.
Somatic Nervous system
The branch of the peripheral nervous system that transmits signals from the sensory organs to the CNS and from the CNS to the skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
The branch of the PNS that connects the CNS to the internal muscles, organs, and glands.
Sympathetic Nervous system
The division of the autonomic NS that heightens arousal and energizes the body for action.
Parasympathetic NS
The division of the autonomic NS that reduces arousal and restores the body to its pre-energized state.
Endocrine System
A collection of ductless glands that regulate aspects of growth, reproduction, metabolism, and behavior by secreting hormones.
Hormones
Chemical messengers secreted from endocrine glands, into the bloodstream, to various organs thoughout the body.
Pituitary gland
A tiny gland in the brain that regulates growth and stimulates hormones in other endocrine glands at the command of the hypothalamus.
Neurons
Nerve cells that serve as the building blocks of the nervous system
Sensory Neurons
Neurons that send signals from the senses, skin, muscles, and internal organs to the CNS
Motor Neurons
Neurons that transmit commands from the CNS to the muscles, glands, and organs.
Interneurons
CNS neurons that connect sensory inputs and motor outputs.
Neural Networks
Clusters of densely interconnected neurons that form and strengthen as a result of experience
Glial cells
Nervous system cells, also called neuroganglia, that provide structural support, insulation, and nutrients to the neurons
Reflex
An inborn automatic response to a sensory stimulus
Soma
The cell body of a neuron
Dendrites
Extensions from the cell body of a neuron that receive incoming impulses
Axon
Extension of the cell body of a neuron the sends impulses to other neurons.
Myelin Sheath
A layer of fatty cells that is tightly wrapped around the axon to insulate it and speed the movement of electrical impulses.
Action potential
An electrical impulse that surges along an axon, caused by an influx of positive ions in the neuron.
Threshold
The level of stimulation needed to trigger a neural impulse.
Synapse
The junction between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another.
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers in the nervous system that transmit information by crossing the synapse from one neuron to another.
Receptors
Specialized neural cells that receive neurotransmitters.
Acetylcholine (ACh)
A neurotransmitter found throughout the nervous system that links the motor neurons and muscles
Dopamine
A neurotransmitter that functions as an inhibitor and is involved in the control of voluntary movements.
Parkinson's disease
A disease characterized by hand tremors, stooped posture, slowness, and a loss of control over one's voluntary movements, caused by death of neurons that produce dopamine.
Endorphin
A morphinelike neurotransmitter that is produced in the brain and is linked to pain control and pleasure
Phrenology
The pseudoscientific theory that psychological characteristics are revealed by bumps on the skull
Electroencephalograph (EEG)
An instrument used to measure electrical activity in the brain though electrodes placed on the scalp.
CT (computerized tomography) scan
A series of X-rays taken from different angles and converted by computer into an image that depicts a horizontal slice of the brain.
PET (Positron emission tomography) scan
A visual display of brain activity, as measured by the amount of glucose being used.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
A brain-scanning technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce clear, three-dimensional images.
Brainstem
The inner core of the brain that connects to the spinal cord and contains the medulla, pons and reticular formation.
Medulla
A brainstem structure that controls vital involuntary functions
Pons
A portion of the brainstem that plays a role in sleep and arousal
Reticular Formation
A group of nerve cells in the brainstem that helps to control sleep, arousal, and attention.
Cerebellum
A primitive brainstem structure that controls balance and coordinates complex voluntary movements.
Basal Ganglia
Masses of gray matter in the brain that help to initiate and coordinate deliberate movements.
Limbic System
A set of loosely connected structures in the brain that help to regulate motivation, emotion, and memory.
Thalamus
A limbic structure that relays neural messages between the senses and areas of the cerebral cortex
Amygdala
A limbic structure that controls fear, anger, and aggresion
hippocampus
A portion of the brain in the limbic system that plays a key role in encoding and transferring new information into long-term memory.
Hypothalamus
A tiny limbic structure in the brain that helps regulate the autonomic nervous sytem, endocrine glands, emotions, and basic drives.
Cerebral Cortex
The outermost coverint of the brain, largely responsible for higher-order mental processes.
Somatosensory cortex
The area of the cortex that receives sensory information from the touch receptors in the skin
Motor cortex
The area of the cortex that sends impulses to voluntary muscles
Association Cortex
Areas of the cortex that communicate with the sensory and motor areas and house the brain's higher mental processes.
Broca's Area
A region in the left hemisphere of the brain that directs the muscle movements in the production of speech
Wernicke's Area
A region in the left hemisphere of the brain that is involved in the comprehension of language.
Corpus callosum
A bundle of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres
Split Brain
A surgically produced condition in which the corpus callosum is severed, thus cutting the link between the left and right hemispheres in the brain
Cerebral Lateralization
The tendency for each hemisphere of the brain to specialize in different functions.
Plasticity
A capacity to change as a result of experience
Neurogenesis
The production of new brain cells
Neural graft
A technique of transplanting healty tissue from the nervous system of one animal to another.
Concussion
An alteration in a person's mental state caused by trauma to the head
Phrenology
The pseudoscientific theory that psychological characteristics are revealed by bumps on the skull
Electroencephalograph (EEG)
An instrument used to measure electrical activity in the brain though electrodes placed on the scalp.
CT (computerized tomography) scan
A series of X-rays taken from different angles and converted by computer into an image that depicts a horizontal slice of the brain.
PET (Positron emission tomography) scan
A visual display of brain activity, as measured by the amount of glucose being used.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
A brain-scanning technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce clear, three-dimensional images.
Brainstem
The inner core of the brain that connects to the spinal cord and contains the medulla, pons and reticular formation.
Medulla
A brainstem structure that controls vital involuntary functions
Pons
A portion of the brainstem that plays a role in sleep and arousal
Reticular Formation
A group of nerve cells in the brainstem that helps to control sleep, arousal, and attention.
Cerebellum
A primitive brainstem structure that controls balance and coordinates complex voluntary movements.
Basal Ganglia
Masses of gray matter in the brain that help to initiate and coordinate deliberate movements.
Limbic System
A set of loosely connected structures in the brain that help to regulate motivation, emotion, and memory.
Thalamus
A limbic structure that relays neural messages between the senses and areas of the cerebral cortex
Amygdala
A limbic structure that controls fear, anger, and aggresion
hippocampus
A portion of the brain in the limbic system that plays a key role in encoding and transferring new information into long-term memory.