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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anything that occupies space and has mass
the quantity of matter defined as the force produced by gravity acting on mass
substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter
the simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of that element
Central region of the atom
positivily charged subatomic particle, located in the nucleus
atomic number
number of protons in an atom
mass number
equal to the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an antom
a negatively charged subatomic particle.
three dementional region around a nucleus that indicates the proabable locaton of an electon.
atoms of the same element that have different number of neutrons
made up of atoms of two or more elements in fixed porportions
chemical bonds
the attractive forces that hold atoms together
covelent bond
forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
simplest parts of a substance that retains all of the properties of that substance and can exist in a free state
an atom or molecule with an electical charge (sodium ion is written asd Na+)
ionic bond
a postive and negative electrical charge that attracts each other (attractons are formed from ions, positive and negative)
ability to do work
chemical reaction
one or more substances change to form one or more substances
shown on the left side of the equation, of a one way chemical reaction (what substances are inthe reaction)
the outcome of a chemical reaction, shown on the right side of a chemical equation
term used to describe all of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism
activation energy
amount of energy needed to start the reaction
reduce the amount of activation energy that is needed for a reaction to take place
a protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions without being permanently changed or destroyed
oxidation reaction
a reactant loses one or more electrons, becoming more positive in charge
redox reaction
a reaction in which electrons are transfered aka oxidation reduction reactions
reduction reaction
a reactant gains one ore more electrons, becoming more negative in charge
has poles (eg positive and negative)
hydrogen bond
the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positve chargedanother atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge
an attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together
the attractive froce between two particles of different substances (water and glass)
attraction between molecules that results inteh rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid (inside a flower, uses adhesion and chohesion)
mixtire in which one or more substances are uniformly distrubuted in another substance
a substance dissolved in the solvent
substance in which the solute is dissolved
amount of solute disolved into a fixed amount of solvent
saturated solutoin
on in which no more solute can dissolve
aqueous solution
solutions in which water is the solvent
hydroxide ion
OH- ion (more hydroxide = acid)
hydronium ion
H(subscript3)O+ (more hydronium = acid)
neutral solution
solution where there is an equal number of hydroxide ions and hydronium ions
more hydronium ions thatn hydroxide makes it an acid
more hydroxide than hydronium makes it a base
pH scale
scale on which the ph of different substances are compared, ranges from 0-14
pH 0
very acidic
pH 2
stomach acid
pH 3
vinegar (acid)
pH 6
urine (acid)
pH 7
water, neutral
pH 8
intestinal fluid (base)
pH 10
milk of magnesia (base)
pH 11
ammonia (base)
pH 14
very basic
What is the change number for determining acidity (logarithmic scale)
one ph unit reflects 10 fold change
chemical stubstances that nutrilize small ammounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution. (some maintain body)