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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
to Carl Rogers, love of support given to another person, with no conditions attached.
UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD
an approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior.
BEHAVIORISM
in psychoanalysis, the psychic energy that fuels the sexual or life instincts of the id.
LIBIDO
theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics within the individual.
PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES
a psychodynamic approach that emphasizes the importance of the infant's first two years of life and the baby's formative relationships, especially with the mother.
OBJECT-RELATIONS SCHOOL
twins that develop when a fertilized egg divides into two parts that develop into seperate embryos.
INDENTICAL (MONOZYGOTIC) TWINS
universal, symbolic images that appear in myths, art, stories, and dreams; to Jungians, they reflect the collective unconscious.
ARCHETYPES
cultures in which the self is regarded as autonomous, and individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others.
INDIVIDUALIST CULTURES
in psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents conscience, morality, and social standards.
SUPEREGO
cultures in which time is organized horizontally; people tend to do several things at once and value relationships over schedules.
POLYCHRONIC CULTURES
in psychoanalysis, the part of personality containing inherited psychological energy, particularly sexual and aggressive instincts.
ID
twins that develop from two seperate eggs fertilized by different sperm; they are no more alike genetically than any other pair of siblings.
FRATERNAL (DIZYGOTIC) TWINS
in jungian theory, the universal memories and experiences of humankind, represented in the symbols, stories, and images (archtypes) that occur across all cultures.
COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives and emotions that characterizes an individual.
PERSONALITY
a psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential rather than the scientific understanding and assessment of behavior.
HUMANIST PSYCHOLOGY
a theory that emphasizes how behavior is learned and maintained through the interaction between individuals and their environments, an interaction strongly influenced by such cognitive processes as observations, expectations, perceptions, and motivating beliefs.
SOCIAL-COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORY
in psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self-control.
EGO
a general expectation about whether the results of your own actions are under your own control (internal locus) or beyond your control (external locus).
LOCUS OF CONTROL
methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness.
DEFENSE MECHANISMS
pysiological dispostions to respond to the environment in certain ways; they are present in infancy and are assumed to be innate.
TEMPERAMENTS
in psychoanalysis, a conflict in which a child desires the parent of the other sex and views the same-sex parent as a rival; this is the key issue in the phallic stage of development.
OEDIPUS COMPLEX
a program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community of society, and a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community.
CULTURE
a characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling.
TRAIT
an interdisciplinary field of study concerned with the genetic bases of behavior and personality.
BEHAVIORAL GENETICS
the functional units of heredity; they are composed of DNA and specify the structure of proteins.
GENES
a statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some triat that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group.
HERITABILITY
a statistical method for analyzing the intercorrelations among different measures or test scores; clusters of measures or scores that are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same underlying trait or ability. (factor)
FACTOR ANALYSIS
cultures in which time is organized sequentially; schedules and deadlines are valued over people.
MONOCHRONIC CULTURES
within the mind (psyche) or self.
INTRAPSYCHIC
the process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on its consequences.
OPERANT CONDITIONING
cultures in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships, and harmony with one's group is prized above individual goals and wishes.
COLLECTIVIST CULTURES
a stimulus or event that strengthens or increases the probability of the response it follows.
REINFORCER
a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy originally developed by Sigmund Freud; it emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts.
PSYCHOANALYSIS