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Chapter 1:
Prehistory to 3,000 B.C.
Birth of Civilization
1. the people of the Old Stone Age lived by hunting and gathering their food. They also made some remarkable advances- making tools, controlling and using fire, and developing spoken language
2. the new stone age began about 10,000 years ago, at about the same time that the last Ice Age ended. People in different parts of the world began to plant crops, domesticate animals, and establish villages. Late in the New Stone Age, artisans in the Middle East learned to work with metals.
3. In four river valleys in Africa and Asia, farming villages gradually grew into cities. As cities developed, so did organized government and religion, a division of labor, social classes, and sstems of writing. In this way, the first civilizations were born.
Chapter 2:
3200-450 B.C.
The First Civilizations
1. One of the world:s first civilizations arose in Sumer, on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Mesopotamia. The Sumerians developed irrigation systems, kept records written in cuneiform, made advances in technology, mathematics, and astronomy, and drew up codes of law. Sumerian traditions were adopted by later peopls of Mesopotamia
2. The civilization that developed along the Nile River in Africa lasted 3,000 years, sustained by strong traditions. The Egymtians were ruled by pharaohs. Pharaohs of the Old Kingdom built pyramids as tombs. Trade flourished during the Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom pharaohs built an empire. High-ranking officials ran Egypt:s complex government and economy. Scribes and artisans held an important place in Egypt, but the majority of Egym\ptians were peasnats. Egyptians made advances in medicine, created sun-based calendar, and showed a talent for engineering. Their belief in a life after death influenced many customs.
3. Other peoples of the ancient Middle East also made advances. The Phoenicians spread the use of an alphabe, the Hittites discovered how to work with iron. The Hebrews introduced laws for moral behavior and the belief in one God. The Lydians introduced the use of coins. The Assyrians: efficient methods of governing were later adopted by the Persians. By about 500 B.C. the Persian Empire had united all the different peoples of the ancient Middle East.
Chapter 3:
2500-500 B.C.
Ancient India and China
1. The Indian subcontinent was the site of one of the great early river valley civilizaions, in the Indus valley. After about 1,000 years, the highly organized Indus culture declined. At the the same time, \aryans from Central \asia took control of the Indus Valley. They gradually developed a rigid case system with strict codes of conduct for each social group. Aryan beliefs also shaped the religion of Hinduisn, which provided both spiritual and practical rules for Indian Society.
2. The first Chines cultures grew up about 2000 B.C. along the Yellow River in north China. During China:s Bronze Age, the Shang dynasty ruled the the help of a powerful army. Around 1100 B.C. the Zhou conquered the Shang empire and developed a feudal system to control the large territory. In 771 B.c the nobles, who had been given power to ruled under the Zhou, rebelled against the Zhou Dynasty. Local lords created a highly oganized government run by public officials who were trained scholars. Confucian teachings about government and familiy life became an important part of Chinese thought.
Chapter 4:
1700-300 B.C.
The Ancient Greeks
1. About 2600 B.C Minoans on the island of Crete developed a civilization with close ties to the sea. Mycenaens from the Greek peninsula later invaded Crete and took control of Minoan trade. With the fall of Mycenae about 1100 B.C., Greece entered a dark age. In the Hellenic Age that followed, Greeks made intelligence and bravery part of the Greek ideal.
2. During the Hellenic Age, city-states developed in Greece. Sparta had the best-trained warriors. Athens, where the idea of democracy was born, was famous for its statesmen, thinkers, writers, and artists. When the Persian Empire attacked Greece in the early fifth century B.C., the city-states united to preserve their freedom. Their victory brought on a golden age.
3. Besides developing democratic government, the Greeks made outstanding achievements in literature, art, architecture, science, and philosophy. The ideal of the Greeks, developed in the Hellenic Age, was a balanced life in which both excellence and moderation were goals to be attained.
4. When athens built an empire in the fifth century B.C., ,Sparta:s challenge brought on the Peloponnesian War. Divided and weakened, th Greek city-states were easily conquered by Macedonia in 338 B.C. Alexander the Great made Greece part of a huge emire. He encouraged contacts between Greeks and non-Greeks. During the Hellenistic Age, after Alexander:s death, Greek ideas continued to develop and spread to the lands o f the ancient Middle East.
Chapter 5;
700 B.C. - A.D. 180
The Roman Republic and Empire
1. Ruled at first by Etruscan Kings, the Romans in 509 B.C. set up a republic. The Roman Republic became a great military power, conquering the entire Mediterranean world. Social and political conflict eventually brought the Republic to an end. In 27 B.C. Octavian, later called Augustus, became the first Roman emperor.
2.Augustus's rule marked the beginning of the Pax Romana. For 200 years the Roman Empire brought order, prosperity, and unity to its many peopld.
3. Class divisions among the people of the Empire were based mainly on wealth. The Roman conquest of Greece led to widespread Greek influence in Roman culture. The result was a Greco-Roman culture that combined the achievements of both peoples.
Chapter 6:
509 B.C. - A.D. 476
The Legacy of Rome
1. A combinaion of internal weakness and invasion destroyed the ROman Emire. The Empire was divided into two parts to make it easier to govern. Rome, the capital of the Western Empire, fell to Germanic tribes. The Eastern Empire, whose capital was Constantinople, survived.
2. The religion of Christianity, based on the teachings of Jesus, began in Judaea. Despite persecution of its followers, Christianity soon spread throughout the Mediterranean. Christianity was eventually accepted, and it became the oficial religion of the Roman Empire in the late 300's.
Chapter 7:
565 B.C. - A.D. 589
Great Empires in India and China
1. The religion of Buddhism was founded in India by Siddhartha Gautama in the sixth century B.C. It was similar in many ways to Hinduism but had wider appeal. Buddhism took root outside India, while within India it was absorbed into Hinduism.
2. India was never united politically. In the north, the Mauryan Empire reached its height under the emperor Asoka in the third century B.C. After Asoka's death, northern India broke into many small kingdoms. It was not until 320 A.D. that another great Indian empire arose--the Gupta. Meanwhile, the Dravidian people in the south developed their own culture and a busy trade with Rome and China.
3. After the death of Confusius, Chinese Thinkers developed new philosophies: Legalism, became the basis of the Qin dynasty, which ruled briefly during the third century B.C. At\fter the fall of the Qin, the Han dynasty ruled for four centuries. Han rulers gave China strength and prosperity.
Chapter 8:
1600 B.C. - A.D. 950
Ancient Africa and America
1. Africa's many climates have chaped the civilizations that have existed on this continent. Early people moved often in search of food. Later peoples turned to farming and built permanent communities. The kingdoms of Kush and Aksum grew out of such communities. ike the cities along Africa's east coast and in the wetern Sudan, these kingdoms traded widely.
2. The first people to live in the America's were wandering hunters from Asia who probably crossed into North America during the Ice Ages. These peoples gradually settled throughout the two American continents. Some of the nomadic hunter began to farm, settling in villages. The Olmec people established patterns that became the "parent culture" for Mexican and Central American civilization. Ths civilization reached its height with the Mayas, who built remarkable religious ceners between the years A.D. 300 and 800.
Chapter 9:
300-1500
Byzantine and Russian Civilizations
1. Byzantine civilization took shape in the 300's A.D. in the eastern half of the Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire recaptured much Roman territory and protected Christian Europe from Muslim invasion. The empire was gradually weakened by a series of invasions, finally falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. The Byzantines preserved many elements of Greco-Roman civilization.
2. From the Combination of Slavic, Viking, and Byzantine traditions, a distinctive Russian state adopted Christianity from the Byzantine Empire. Mongol invaders Then occupied Russia from the 1200s until the mid-1400's. The city of Moscow led the fight to defeat the Mongols and became the center of a unified Russia.
Chapter 10:
570-1258
The World of Islam
1. The religion of Islam was founded by Mohammed in Arabia in the seventh century. An emire based on Islam spread Mohammed's teachings through the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. Less than a century after its creation, the Muslim empire had grown to cover lands from Spain to India. In time, the empire was weakened by invasions of Turks and Christians. THe Mongols' takeover of the city of Baghdad in 1258 complreted the fall of the Muslim empire.
2. Muslim society was based on the Koran. Muslim culture reflected the influences of other peoples, especially the Greeks. Muslim achievements in science, medicine, and philosophy were remarkably advanced.
Chapter 11:
500-1200
The Early Middle Ages
1. The fall of Rome created confusion in Western and Central Europe, and political authority broke down. During the early Middle Ages, Christianity blended with Germanic traditions and Greco-Roman culture to form medieval civilization. The Church organization, along with the empire of Charlemgane, restored a sense of unity to Europe.
2. Charlemagne's heirs could not holdd the empire together. Raids by Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims caused widespread disorder.Feudalism, which was based on relationships between lords and their vassals, developed as cenral authority declined. Along with feudalism came the manrial system. Serfs--peasants who could not leave the manor--worked the lord's land in exchange for protection. The manor was largely self-sufficient and the basic economic unit of the Middle Ages.
Chapter 12:
800-1270
New Forces in Medieval Europe
1. The 1100s and 1200s were a period of vitality for Western Europe. Changes in agriculture increased food production and led to population growth. Trade revived, banking practices developed, and merchants and artisans formed guilds. The growth of towns contributed to the decline of serfdom and led to the rise of the middle class.
2. Powerful rulers laid the foundations of national states in Europe. England was unified soon after the Norman conquest in 1066, but it took French kings centuries to create a unified state. The development of Parliament and the Magna Carta limited the power of the English monarch. There were no similar checks on the French King.
3. The Church used its strength and organization to punish its opponents. Church demands for a role in European politics created disputes with the Holy Roman Emperor and other monarchs. These quarrels prevented the development of unified states in German and italy. The Church campaign against heresy led to the Inquisition and the formation of two important orders. There orders performed missionary work as well.
4. The Church also tried to expand the area of Christian influence by retaking Muslim lands in Spain. The Crusades, an attempt by Europeans to take control of the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks, ended in failure, weakening both the Church and the nobles. Nevertheless, the Crusades did stimulate trade between Europe and the East. meanwhile, Germans made conversions for Christianity along the Baltic coast.
Chapter 13:
1050-1485
Europe in Late Medieval Times
1. Europe's prosperity in the 1100s and 1200s was accompanied by a cultural flowering. The first universities developed, and contacts with Muslim and Byzantine cultures made the knowledge of ancienct Greece and Rome available in Western Europe. A rich literature began to be written in vernacular languages. Architecture moved from the massive Romanesque style to the graceful Gothic.
2. The famine, disease, and warfare of the 1300s greatly changed Europe. The power of kings increased and the political power of Popes declined. These changes would bring the Middle Ages to an end.
Chapter 14:
500-1700
Asia after the Rise of Islam
1. From the 700s to the 1500s, various Muslim groups invaded India. The Muslims did not adopt Hindu customs, but they did set up the Mogul Empire in India. The Mogul Empire reached its height in the 1500s and 1600s. Corruption and intolerance led to its later decline.
2. The Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople from the Byzantines in 1453 and built an empire that included the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of Europe. After its peak in the 1500s, the Ottoman Empire weakened. Meanwhile, Safavid rulers built an empire in Persia. Through it prospered for only a short time, it left the legacy of a united Persian state.
3. China's Age of Disunity was ended in the sixth century by the Sui dynasty. During the Tang and Song dynasties, which followed the Sui, the arts flourished and new technology was developed. In the 1200s Mongol invadoers crushed the Song and took control of China. The Ming dynasty arose when Mongol rule weakened. It attempted to return China to traditional ways, artly by isolating China from the outside world.
4. Japan borrowed elements of culture from china but developed its own civilization. By the late 1100s, real governing power had passed from the Japanese emperor to military leaders called shoguns. Feudalism developed, puting power int he hands of landowning lords (daimyo) and warriors (samurai). In the late 1500s Japan became a strong national state. Foreign trade flourished for a time, but in the mid-1600s the Tokugawa shoguns adopted a policy of isolation from the rest of the world.
Chapter 15:
500-1600
Africa in the Age of Islam
1. New empires arose in the western Sudan as a result of increased contact with Islamic civilizations to the north. The empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai helped provide stability for a thousand years. After these empires declined, trade routes across the Sahara shifted east. Farther south, new Bantu kingdoms based on traditional African culture were appearing. Swahili city-states arose that were heavily influenced by Muslim traders from Arabia, Persia, and India.
2. African culture was deply affected by its increasing exposure to Islamic civilization. Two examples were the growth of the Swahili language, which borrowed many Arabic terms, and the growth of Arabic Literacy. Islam especially gained many converts in the trading cities. The spread of religion and trade also led to a tremendous increase in the construction of new buildings. Meanwhile, class divisions grew sharper and the slave trade increased.
Chapter 16:
400-1600
Aztecs, Incas, and other American Peoples
1. In the 1400s, warrior-states became dominant in Mexico and along the pacific coast of South America. The Aztecs in Mexico built an empire based on conquest and trade from their capital city Tenochtitlan. In South America, Inca conquests created an empire in the Andes.
2. North of Mexico, farming began about 1500 B.C. The earliest distinctive cultures in what is now the United States were developed by the Anasazi in the Southwest, The Hopewell and Mississippians farther east, and the people of the Northwest pacific Coast. Trading and political alliances linked many of the different North American peoples, most of whome were peaceful farmers.
Chapter 17:
1350-1600
Renaissance and Reformation
1. The 1300s saw the beginning of the Renaissance, a rebirth of interest in ancient Greece and Rome. The Renaissance began in Italy, where wealthy merchangs and bankers encouraged the arts and the study of the humaniities. Renaissance people placed a high value on varied achievements and individualism. The Renaissance spread from Italy to other parts of Europe in the 1400s and 1500s.
2. The Renaissance marked a period of great creativity in painting, clpture, and literature. Renaissance literature was characterized by the use of the vernacular and an interest in individuals. New techniques, as well as the genius of men such as Leonardo da Vinci, contributed to the dintinctiveness of Resaissance art.
3. Calls for reform in the Church led to major changes in the 1500s. Martin Luther challenged basic Church teachings. Those who protested against church teachings became known as Protestants; the overall movement for change was called the Reformation. Lutheranism and other forms of rotestantism spread in northern Europe. The Catholic Church launched the Counter Reformation to strengthen its position. Important resutls of the Reformation were the end of religious unity in Europe and the strengthening of European states at the expense of Church authority.
Chapter 18:
1450-1763
European Exploration and Colonization
1. A thirst for wealth and power, the desire to spread Christianity, the Renaissance spirit of curiosity and adventure, and improvements in technology all paved the way for European exploration and expansion in different parts of the world. The Portuguese took the lead i n these voyages and gained control of trade between Europe and India. Spain sponsored Collumbus's expeditions to the Americas. Spain also sponsored Magellan's voyage around the world.
2. In the Americas, Spain's explorations led to wars of conquest. The Spanish defeated the Aztecs and Incas and gained an empire that included southwestern North America, Central America, and much of South America. The ortugueses claimed and colonized Brazil. Both Spain and Portugal gained power and prestige from their American colonies.
3. Other European nations began their own explorations. The Netherlands, England, and France established colonies in North America. A series of wars in the1700s gave England control of most of France's possessions in North America.
Chapter 19:
1450-1807
A Changed and Changing World
1. Mercantilist policies led European states to build foreign trade, accumulate wealth in the form of gold and silver, and set up colonies as sources of profit. The social and economic changes that took place in Europe and in European colonies changed the nature of the world economy. The new economic outlook emphasized the money value of land and labor, and the investment of capital to make a profit. The Commercial Revolution saw the beginning of the modern market economy.
2. With colonization, the population of the Americas came to include Europeans and Africans as well as native American Indians. As these peoples interacted, their cultures mixed as well. This exchange led to the formation of new and unique cultural patterns.
3. Because the European demand for slave labor increased, Africa's existing slave trade expanded. As a link in the Atlantic slave trade, Africa received European goods in exchange for slaves. The three centuries of slave trade had a long-lasting impact on Africa.
Chapter 20:
1469-1796
Powerful States in Europe
1. Spain's rulers united their country ini the late 1400s and made it the leading European power for a century. Then, under Charles V, Spain and its empire came into the hands of the powerful hapsburgs of Austria. Involvement in many wars helped drive Spain from wealth to bankruptcy.
2. Religious conflicts dominated Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In France these conflicts led to greater tolerance. In Germany they led to the destructive Thirty Year's War.
3. The reign of Louis XIV marked the height of absolute monarchy in France. Louis used his power to promote French culture. With no one to restrain him, however, Louis led France into unwise wars and serious economic trouble.
5. England prospered in the reign of Elizabeth I, but the Stuart kings who followed her tried to rule with absolute power. The English Parliament rebelled in the 1640s and set up a short-lived republic known as the Commonwealth. Monarchy was restored in 1660, but Parliament continued to limit royal power.
5. Foreign invasions cut short the development of strong states in Hungary and Poland. russia, however, became a major power under czars Peter and Catherine.
Chapter 21:
1500-1800
New Ideas in Europe, A New Nation in America
1. During the Scientific revolution, Europeans rejected the medieval earth-centered view of the universe. Scientists such as Copernicus, Galileo, Brahe, and Kepler offered new theories based on observation, experimentation, and mathematics. building on their work, the English scientists Isaac Newton described a universe governed by mathematical laws of motion. In the life sciences, Vesalius, Harvey, Leeuwenhoek, and Linnaeus used the scientific method to find order in living things.
2. The Enlightenment grew out of the achievements of the Scientific Revolution. Enlightenment thinkers such as Hobbes and Locke tried to understand and improve human society through the use of reason. The philosophies, including Voltaire, Montesqiueu, and Rosseau, attacked religious persecution and limits on freedom of thought. Enlightenment ideas spread throughout Europe, affecting all aspects of society.
3. Angry about taxes and inspired by Enlightenment ideals, American colonists declared their independence from britain in 1776. After winning their freedom in the American Revolution, Americans formed a new government under the Constitution. The Bill of Rights guaranteed citizens certain rights.
Chapter 22:
1774-1815
The French Revolution
1. The Old Regime in France was based on absolute monarchy and on a nobility and Clergy with special privileges. Unfair taxation and unequal opportunities caused widespread discontent among the Third Estate--The middle class, peasants, and city workers. In 1789 a financial crisis forced Louis XVI to call a meeting of the Estates-General. he bourgeoisie took over the meeting. Aided by uprisings of peasants and Parisian workers, they ended feudal privileges and limited the king's power.
2. In 1792, radicals who wanted to end monarchy altogether took conrol of the French Revolution. They established a republic, executed the king, and killed thousands of French people in what was called the Reign of Terror. Other European monarchs went to war against the French republic. In 1795 a moderate government called the Directory took power.
3. The Directory was easily overthrown in 1799 by a popular general, Napoleon Bonaparte. By 1804 he had made himself emperor. Napoleon's military genius enabled him to conquer much of Europe, bringing some of the reforms of the Revolution to other ocuntries. However, his absolute rule, combined with growing feelings of nationalism, aroused opposition to French occupation. An alliance of European nations finally defeated Napoleon in 1815.
Chapter 23:
1780-1911
New Nations in Latin America
1. In the beginning of the nineteenth century, independence movements spread quickly through Latin America. Between 1804 and 1824, many Latin American colonies successfully revolted against European rule.
2. Nation-building progressed slowly in Latin America. Natural Barriers and social and political conflict hapered efforts to unify countries. However, in the mid-1800s dictators (called caudillos) brought order and stability to these lands. This stability prompted a surge in trade and investment in Latin America, but the overall effects on Latin American societies were mixed. Mexico, which faced internal problems as well as threats from abroad, ,demonstrated the kinds of challenges confronting Latin America.
Chapter 24:
1770-1850
Reaction and Revolution in Europe
1. After the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna in 1815 returned conservatives to power throughout Europe. The conservatives fought to restore the authority of the monarchs, the aristocracy, and the clergy. They were challenged by liberals, who wanted to extend individual rights and continue the reforms made during the French Revolution. Other opposition to the conservatives came from nationalists, who wanted free and unified homelands. Between 1820 and 1848, liberals and nationalists led a number of revolutions that threatened conservative rule.
2. The Romantic movement of the late 1700s and early 1800s reflected the liberal and nationalist movements. Romanic writers and painters stressed creativity and imagination, often using nature as a subject. Romantic writers and musicians used nationalist themes in their works.
3. In 1848, as in 1830, a revold in France triggered others in Europe. Liberal and nationalist revolts broke out in the Austrian Empire, Italy, and the German States. After some early successes, however, the Revolutions were crushed. Conservative rulers remained in power in Europe.
Chapter 25:
1750-1914
The West in the Industrial Age
1. The Industrial revolution, which began in great Britain about 1750, was the result of rapid changes in agriculture and technology. Machines began to replace human labor, and the factory system replaced the domestic system of producing goods. New sources of energy, such as steam an electricity, also spurred industrialization. Workers flocked to cities to take factory jobs and found that urban conditions were often crowded and unhealthy. Strained by the hectic pace of industrial life, society was no longer as tightly knit as it once had been.
2. In response to the problems caused by the Industrial revolution, nineteenth century thinkers proposed changes in society. Some called for a laissez-faire economy, free from government interference. Others urged socialist reforms. Karl Marx predicted a struggle between workers and owners that, he said, would one day destroy capitalism and pave the way for a classless society where all people would share in the wealth.
3. Reformers worked for laws to improve factory conditions, pubplic health, and education. Some workers organized labor unions that also demanded reforms in politics and society. More men gained the right to vote, while women in several countries worked to win political equality.
Chapter 26:
1815-1914
Nationalism in Europe
1. In spite of their defeat in the 1848 revolts, Italian nationalists continued to work for independence. The Sardinian leader Camillo di Cavour used shrewd political moves and strategic wars to bring northern Italian states together, while the inspiring leader Giuseppe Garibaldi helped unify the south. By 1870 all of Italy was united.
2. Otto von Bismarck steered a strong Prussian state toward dominance of a unified Germany. expanding its territories and weakening its rivals, Prussia succeeded in uniting German. William II continued Bismarck's "Blood and Iron " policies. by the late 1800s, Germany was one of the most powerful nations in the world.
3. Nationalism weakened the mulinational empires of Eastern Europe. The Austrian Empire, already threatened by Italian and German expansion, became the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary to satisfy the Magyars. Pressures on the empire intensified as Southern Slavs began to demand independence. The Crumbling Ottoman Empire fell prey to the ambitions of its neightbors. Even the support of Britain and France could not halt the Ottoman decline, and the Balkan Wars all but finished the empire. Nationalism in the russian Empire came into conflice with the autocratic rule of the czars. As repression increased, tensions heightened, bringing Russia to the bring of revolution.
Chapter 27:
1850-1914
Europe in the Late 1800s
1. The late nineteenth century in Europe was a time of rapid industrial growth and urbanization. Improvements in health and agriculture produced population increases. Industrialization gave rise to a new upper class, a powerful middle class, and a huge class of urban workers. While workers remained at the bottom of society, they did gain political power and a higher standard of living.
2. Startling new discoveries in chemistry and physics marked the beginning of the modern age of science. Scientists studied the structure of the atom, the nature of radioactivity, and the laws of physics In biology, the thoery of evolution offered one explanation for the development of living things. Sociologists and psychologists also began studying human society and behavior in a scientific way.
3. Painting in the late 1800s was marked by experimentation with light, form, and clor, leading to movements such as impressionism and cubism. Music generall followed the Romantic style, though some composers began to experiment with structure. in play and novels, writers began to portray contemporary life in a realistic way.
4. Meanwhile, Europe was troubled by dangerous political forces. Extreme nationalism rejected ideas of freedom and called for the domination of other lands an peoples. Some nationalists adopted racist ideas, and anti-Semitism was widespread.
Chapter 28:
1800-1914
The Expansion of the Western World
1. In the 1800s, the Industrial Revolution helped bring about an expansion of European influence in the non-Western world. New technologies improved travel and communication, and international trade skyrocketed. Many Europeans, as well as Asians, moved to new lands in search of a better life. The nations of Europe also colonized large areas of the non-Western world.
2. Between 1803 and 1867, the United States stretched its borders all the way to the pacific Oean. By the end of the century it had become the dominant power in the Western Hemisphere. Meanwhile, British colonies such as Canada, Australia, and New Zealand moved gradually toward self-rule. Internal divisions and violence, however, continued to plague Ireland.
Chapter 29:
1763-1914
Asia in the Age of Imperialism
1. Merchants of the English East India Company arrived in India in the 1600s. Within 200 years, Britain took control of all India. In 1857, Indians rose up against the British in the Sepoy Rebellion. This led Britain to tighten control. In the eaarly 1900s, Indian nationalists called for home rule.
2. In the 1800s the West ended China's isolation, forcing it to accept European trade. China was unwilling to adopt Western ideas, however, and modernizations was slow. Angry at foreign domination and the weak Manchu government, the Chinese people launched a series of rebellions. A revolution finally toppled the empire in 1912, but the new government failed to unite the country.
3. Japan also was forced to open its ports because of Western pressure, but Japan did adopt many ideas from the West. A small ruling group led the government in modernizing Japan. By the early 1900s, Japan had begun its own empire in Asia.
Chapter 30:
1780-1914
Imperialism in Africa
1. When the international slave trade ended in the early 1800s, Europeans and Americans found new interests in Africa. Some blacks migrated to Africa and set up colonies there. Explorers and missionaries spread Christianity and western ways in Africa; they also brought information about Africa to people in Europ and the United States. Africa's resources attracted investors, and soon European nations began to claim African lands as part of their empires.
2. Conquest and colonization followed. The leading imperilist powers in Africa were France, Britain, and Belgium. Germany, Spain, Portugal, and Italy also had colonies. At the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, Western nations divided the African continent among themselves. African peoples fought the takeover, but they could not withstand superior European armies and weapons.
3. Styles o colonial rule varied. All colonial powers imposed their own laws and institutions, however, and Africans had limited opportunities to take part in government. In general, Africans and European colonists lived separately. Colonialism brought the Africans hard work and few rewards, although some benefited from education and economic development. Wealth and power remained in European hands.
Chapter 31:
1882-1919
The First World War
1. The forces that led to outbreak of World War I had existed in Europe for decades. Natonal rivalries and militarism brough about an arms race and the formation of opposing alliances. A nationalist movement among Serbian Slavs led to the assassination of the heir to the throng of Austria-Hungary in June 1914. With this excuse, Austria-Hungary began the war. Austria-Hungary and Germany were soon at war against Britain, france, and Russia.
2. Germany expected a uick victory in France, but by the winter of 1914-1915, it was clear that the war would be long. Trench warfare on the western front in France was made more brutal by new weaponry such as machine guns, poison gas, and tanks. As other nations took sides, the Conflict became truly a "World War." In April 1917 the United States entered the war on the Allied side. Combined Allied forces stopped the final German offensive in France, and the war came to an end in November 1918.
3. The peace settlements brough widespread political and territorial changes. Though Presiden Wilson suggested generous peace terms in his Fourteen Poins plan, the Treaty of Versailles punished Germany harshly. The League of Nations, proposed by Wilson, was formed to help ensure world peace, but bitter feelings and resentment lingered in many nations.
Chapter 32:
1894-1939
Russia in Upheaval
1. By the late 1800s, the czarist regime had lost touch with changes within russia. Popular unrest, already widespread, only worsened under a government indstrialization program. weakened by wartime defeats, the regime finally collapsed in the March Rebolution in 1917. By the end of the year, its democratic successor had fallen to Marxist revolutionaries known as Bolsheviks.
2. Lenin, The Bolshevik leader, kept the Bolsheviks in power despite challenges from outside and inside russia. He also laid the foudnation of a new state, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. WIthin the USSR, Lenin made the Communist Party the supreme authority.
3. After Lenin's death, Stalin took steps to establish himself in power. Determined to modernize the Soviet state, he ruthlessly enforced policies of industrialization and collectivization. Millions dies as Stalin used terror to gain total control over the state.
Chapter 33:
1918-1939
The World Between the Wars
1. Fascism gained popularity in Italy and Germany after World War I. In 1922 th Italian Fascists, led by Benito Mussolini, took power. Mussolini then set out to destroy opposition to his rule and to build and Italian empire. Ther German Fascists, called Nazis, took power in 1933. Their leader, Adolf Hitler, used propaganda and violence to make Germany a totalitarian state. Another Fascist state was established in Spain, and several Eastern European countries moved away from democracy.
2. The Western democracies faced severd problems after World War I. A period of properity in the 1920s was cut short by the Great Depression, forcing Western governments to reform their economies. Western culture reflected the worries, but also the excitement, of these uncertain times.
3. Postwar crises affected Asia as well. The Chinese Nationalists established a government that united part of China. The Chinese Communists, however, remained a constant challenge. Militarists gained control of the Japanese government in the 1930s and began building an empire in Asia. In the Middle East nationalism gained strength, and oil discoveries enriched the region.
Chapter 34:
1928-1945
World War II
in the decade after WWI, many nations took part in efforts to preserve peace. The rise of dictators in Germany and Italy, however, led to aggression. Britain and France did little at first to halt Germany's violations of the Versailles treaty. At Munich in 1938, they continued the policy of appeasement. When Hitler moved against Poland in 1939, World War II broke out.
2. In 1940 German forces rapidly overran Western Europe, leaving Britain alone to face Hitler. The German invasion of the Soviet Union, However, brought that country into the war. A Soviet victory at Stalingrad in 1943 and victories in North Africa turned the tide of the war against Hitler. Meanwhile, the Nazis carried out cruel racial policies in occupied Europe, causing much opposition among conquered peoples.
3. Japanese aggression against China in the 1930s led to war in Asia. In December 1941, a surprise Japanese attack on Hawaii drew the United States into the war. Japanese conquests in the Pacific came to an end with an important American victory in the battle of Midway.
4. The Allied victory in Europe came in May 1945. War continued in Asia, but by dropping atomic bombs on two Japanese cities, the Unites States forced Japan to surrender in August 1945. At the war's end, world leaders were faced with the task of rebuilding shattered countries and creating a lasting peace.
Chapter 35:
1945-present
1. Allied leaders' hopes for a lasting peace after WWII led to the creation of the United Nations in 1945. The United States and the Soviet Union dominated post-war politics, and rivalry between the super powers created an atmosphere of tension known as the cold war.
2. Much of Western Europe made a remarkable recover after WWII, due to American aid and European economic cooperation. West Germany grew into one of the world's leading industrial powers. France, despite setbacks in Indochina and Algeria, followed an independent foeign policy under de Gaulle. Britain gave up its colonies, and struggled with economic problems. Dictators inSpain, Portugal, and Greece gave way to more democratic governments. Italy established a republic, and its northern regions became more industrialized.
3. The Soviet Union faced a huge task of rebuilding in the postwar period. Stalin terrorized his people until his death 1953. Khrushchev moved away from Stalinism, but Brezhnev tried to expand Soviet power. In the Gorbachev years, the cold war came to a close as the peoples of Eastern Europe broke away from Soviet control and political economic upheaval brought an end to the Soviet Union itself.
Chapter 36:
1945-present
New Directions for Asia
1. In China, WWII was followed by Civil war. The Communists defeated the Kuomintang in 1949, and Mao Zedong formed a new government, known as the People's Republic of China. Ma made vast changes in Chinese agriculture and society. After the violence of the Cultural Revolution, China's leaders took a more moderate stance.
2. Guided by the nationalist leader Mohanda Gandhi, India won its independence from britain in 1947. Though the country has had to struggle against poverty and political unrest, the goverment has remenined democratic. Pakistan also formed in 1947, amid violence and bloodshe. In a 1971 civil war, East Pakistan won ints independence, taking the name of Bangladesh.
3. After WWII the US occupied Japan and worked to rebuild it as a democratic nation. Japan's economy became one of the world's strongest. Other Pacific Rim countries achieved economic growth by encouraging trade and private enterprise.
4. Most of Southeast Asia became independent during or just after WWII. The Philippines gained independence peacefully in 1946, but internal conflicts threatened its democrac. North and South Vietnam clashed in the Vietnam War, which began in 1957. In 1975, Communist forces took over South Vietnam. Communist rebels also came to power in Cambodia and Laos in 1975. After a long civil war, a UN plan brought peace to Cambodia in 1991.
Chapter 37:
1945-present
Challenges for the Middle East
1. The UN partitioned Plestine in 1948, dividing it between Arabs and Jews. The Arabs did not, however, set up an Arab state in Palestine, choosing instead to attack the newly founded state of Israel. When the war ended, Palestinians had lost their lands. Many became refugees in Arab nations. War broke out between Arabs and Israelis again in 1956, in 1967, and in 1973. The leaders of Egypt and Israel signed a peace agreement in 1978. Disputes over the Palestinians stood in the way of peace for the region, however.
2. Nationalism became a powerful force in the middle East as the region emerged from foreign domination after WWI. Using capital from oil production, some naitonalist leaders were able to modernize their nations. The non-Arab countries of Turkey and Iran suffered political unrest in the postwar period. Iran went from the pro-Western rule of the shahs to the anti-Western rule of Islamic extremists. Ausdi Arabia, Egypt, and Jordan were Arab nations that followed more moderate policies. Like Syria and Libya, Iraq was one of the more extremem Arab natons, hostile to the United States and Israel. In 1990 the Iraqi dictator's invasion of Kuwait provoked world-wide condemnation and the imposing of economic sanctions on Iraq. In the Gulf War of 1991, a US led alliance forced Iraq to give up Kuwait.
Chapter 38:
1945-present
Independent Africa
1. The African nationalist movements after 1945 were part of a global struggle for black equlity. Independence came first in Ghana in 1957. The rest of British and French West Africa followed by 1960, along with the belgian Congo, later known as Zaire. After a period of violence, Kenya gained independence from Britain in 1963.
2. In postwar southern Africa, settlers depending white rule faced rising opposition. Black protest movements grew larger in South Africa after 1950 in response to racist aparttheid laws. Many leaders were jailed by the South African government. The whites in Southern Rhodesia declared their independence from Britain in 1965 in an effort to preserve white rule. However, they accepted majority rule in 1980. Armed Nationalist movements in Angola and Mozambique forced Portugal to grant these areas idependence in 1974. Shaken by growing protests, South Africa in 1990 finally took steps toward dismantling its apartheid system.
3. The nations of Africa faced serious difficulties in their efforts to build national unity. One-party rule became the pattern. Education and health care expanded and industrialization was pushed, but much money had to be spent on food programs. During the cold war era outside powers played an active role in African Politics, but more recent events have ended superpower rivalry on that continent.
Chapter 39:
1945-present
The Changing Americas
1. The pursuit of economic development has been the main goal of Latin American nations in recent years. Poverty and dependence on foreign capital are still major concerns. Many nations have made progress toward democracy but still face problems resulting from inequality and extremism.
2. The US emerged from WWII powerful and prosperous. The federal government grew steadily until the 1980s, when efforts were made to cut back. African Americans and other groups sought equal rights. In foreign affairs, the US became involved in conflicts in several parts of the world. Cold war tension with the Soviet Union continued into the 1980s. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the cold war ended and the US began shaping its foreign polity to fit its new role in world affairs.
3. In Canada, increased production during and after WWII spurred the economy. Economic and military dependence on the US created concern, however. Conflicts between the provinces and the federal government endangered national unity as Quebec threatened to separate from Canada.
Chapter 40:
1960-2000 and beyond
Linking Past, Present, and Future
1. In the Post-1960 era the US and the Soviet Union made great progress in space exploration. The first moonwalk took place in 1969, and by the 1980s spacecraft were traveling to the outer reaches of the solar system. Other scientific advances of recent decades inscluded genetic engineering and improvements in medicine.
2. Governments around the world faced sever problems in the postwar era. Overpopulation, environmental pollution, and energy shortages all cried our for solutions. The superpowers engaged in cold war rivalry until the abandonment of communism in Soviet-bloc nations launched a new era in international relations. Meanwhile, Third World nations faced difficult economic problems. Moves toweard democracy in many lands raised hopes for the future.
3. Mass communication brought the cultures of the world closer together as the century passed. There was a revival of religious fundamentalism, both in Christianity and in Islam. Painters took part in movements such as abstract expressionism, pop art, and the new realism. Architecture was influenced first by the International Style and then by post-modernism. European literature was influenced by existentialist thought, and important new writers arose in the Third World as well as the west.