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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Childhood All About?
Development-changes in behavior, abilites, changes that are physical, mental and social. Social forces and environment also are impact.
What does Nature refer to?
Heredity and genetic transmission of information from your parents (eye color and hair color)
What does Nurture do?
External environmental events (family, friends, school, and TV)
Several age groups are tested at one time on a dependent variable/
Follows one age group over a long period of time to assess changes in development
Different age groups are followed over a short period of time to assess developmental changes.
a fertilized egg containing 23 pairs of chromosomes
What are the three stages of prenatal development
germinal or zygote, embryonic and fetal
Germinal or zygote stage
first 14 days after conception, major cell division.
Embryonic stage
Second week through the eighth week, development and formation of all major organs and systems, skeletal system, digestive system, arms and legs, facial features, the heart are all developed in this stage, MOST CRITICAL STAGE
Fetal stage
ninth week after concemtion until birth, growth and maturation contuines, fetus cant kick, open mouth, swallow and turn its head.
a newborn during the first 28 days of life
Gross motor skills
involving the large muscles of the body, walking, jumping and playing sports
Fine motor skills
Involving the small muscles of the body; writing, using utensils or drawing an accurate circle
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget studied children, he interviewed and observed children whilte they solved problems, he developed a theory about how children acquire their mental abilities
Defined as a mental idea, concept, or thought, we form these based on our experiences of the world; we form schemas to fit with our perceptions of the world. when we achieve this fit, we have mental equilibrium, and our cognitions or congruent with the environment, when schemas and experiences dont fit, disequilibrium is created
process by which an already existing schema is used to understand something new in the environtmnet- truck
schemat is changes, modified or created a new in order to undersand something new in t he environment -fire truck
Sensorimotor stage
birth to 2 years infants knowledge through there senses and throught their motor abilities, children in this stage do not usually understand object permanence.
Object permanence
understanding that an object contiunes to exist even when it is not present
Symbolic thinking
understanding that na object can be represented with symbols such as bodily gestures or language.
Preoperational stage
2 -7 years, pretent play, vocabulary and understanding language increase during thse years
illogical thinking; focusing on only one feature of an object
understanding that an object retains its original properties even through it may look different; peroperational children lack conservation
the child believes that everyone else sees the world as he or she does
Collective monologues
talking at the same time as others
Charateristics of Preoperational Thinking
Centration, conservation, egocentrism, collective monologues
Concrete Operational Thinkined
6-12 years, recognize erres in previros thinking, they may question fantase, learn best through actual experiences and obersavations
Formal Operations
Teenage years, not limited to concrete experiences, teenages can imagine and hypothesize what may be
Moral reasoning
how you decide what is right or wrong
Kehlberg developed what?
moral delemmas and created a theoryof how children morally reason and the changes in this reasoning that they experience as they develop.
Preconvertional level
Children make decisions about right or wrong based on their ability to aviod punisment or to gain rewards, children usually cannot undersand the nature of the rules
Conventional level
can now understand rules and expectations that others may have for them, their moral reasoning is based on the standards of the group or society
Postconventional level
people base their judgements on right or wrong on contractual or universal principles of morality, we chose certain principles to quide moral behavior
Gilligans' Theory
Carol Gilligan- student of Kohlberg's shes hypothesizes that males and femails do not judge right and wrong in the same manner, any gender differences in moral reasoning may be more a result of how we expect males and femails to behave
Secure attachments
infant uses parents as a supportive base from which to =operate and explore, They usually cry when parents leave
Avoidant attachment
infant may ignore the parents. They pay the parent little attention and show little distress when the parents leave.
Resistane attachment
A "clingy" baby. They do not actively explor new situations and show extreme distress when parnt leave
High levels of control and low levels of affection, high expectations for their children, littlke communication, children do not obey, children may be withdrawn.
moderate levels of control and affection, democratic discussions, happy and self-confident, most effective approach to parenting
moderatle levesl of affection, low levels of control, children make thier own decisions, children tend to be immaute, rebellious
the collection of ones enduring qualities that apprear to be due to the influence of nature and nurture
Definition of learning
a relatively permanent change in behavior of the potential for behavior, that resuls from experience
What is Orienting reflexes?
allows us to quickly gather infor. about stimuli that could potentially be threating.-look in direction for flash-
The tendency of a n organism to ignore repeated stimuli; it is the decrease in attention that we give to repeated stimulation-not looking for the flash
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
a stimulus that naturally elicits a response in an organism
Unconditioned Response (UR)
The response that is elicited be an unconditioned stimulus
Neutral Stimuls (NS)
A stimulus that does not naturallyt elicit an unconditioned response in an organism
to begin re-responding to a stimulus to which one had been habituated
Classical conditioning
learning that occurs whedn a nautral stimulus is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus; because of this pairing, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus with the same power as the uncondition stimul,us to elicit the response in the organism
Stimulus generalization
responding in a like fashion to similar stiumli, stimuli similar to CS have the same power to elicit the CR even though they have never been paired with the US
using classical condition to remove an undesired conditioned response in an organism, conditioned to have a positive reather than a negative reaction to the stimulus
Stimulus discrimination
responding only to particular stimli, CP occurs in response to a particluar CS, but it does not occur in response to other stimuli that are similar to the CS.
Taste aversion
classical conditioning that occurs when an organism pairs the experience of nausea with a certain food and becomes conditioned to feel ill at the sight, smell, or idea of the food.
when a conditioned stimulus no longer produces a conditioned response
Instrumental conditioning (E.L. Thorndike)
A type of learning in which the organism learns through the consequences of it's behavior
E.L. Thorndike
worked with cats in puzzle boxes- law of effect- random behaviors that lead to positive consequences with be strengthened and random behaviors that lead to negative consequences will be weakened.
Positive reinforcement
strengthening a behavior be adding something pleasant to the environment of the organism
Negative reinforcement
reinforcing a behavior by removing something unpleasant from the environment of the organism
Punisment is not the same as negative reinforcement
"Negative" means removing something--Remembering that reinforcement increase behavior
Positive punishment
weakening a behavior be adding something unpleasant to the organism's environment
Negative punishment
weakening a behavior by removing something pleaseing form the organism's environment
Classical conditioning
the organism plays a passive role, there is one clear response that is required of the organism, emotional and physiclogical response tend to be conditioned.
Instrumental conditioning
organism plays more active role
Schedules of Reinforement
the frequency and timing of the reinforcment that an organism receives
not always feasilbe or practical- more vulnerable to extinction with continously reinforced
Partial Reinforcement schedules
organism is rewarded for only some instances of the desired response
Fixed ration schedule
organism is rewarded for every xth instance of the desired response
Variable ratio schedule
The organism is rewarded on average for every xth instance of the desire response
Fixed Interval schedule of reinforement
organism is rewared for the first desired response in an xth interval of time
Variable interval schedule of reinforcement
organism is rewarded for the first desired response in an average xth interval of time
Build a new behavior in an organism by rewarding successive approximations of the desired response
reinforcer that is reinforcing in an of itself; food, water, sex, or a warm bed
reinforcer that is reinforcing only because it leads to a primiary reinforcer; money and what you can do with it
Token economies
people are rewarded for appropriate behavior with chips or something similar that they can exchange later for a primary reinforcer
Social learning theory
learning through the observation and imitation of others behavior, one thing that is very important is whether or not the organism has the capability to reproduce the behavior that has been modeled
Albert Bandura-bobo dolls
three conditions- children rewarded, punished, or no consequences for beating the doll