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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Matter
anything that takes up space and has mass
Element
a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reaction
Compound
a substance consisting of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio
Trace elements
Elements required by an organism in only minute quantities
Neutron
subatomic partical; neutrally charged; located at the core of the atom
Proton
subatomic partical; positivly charged; located at the core of the atom
Electron
subatomic partical; negativly charged; located in a cloud circling the nucleus
Atomic Nucleus
dense core at the center of the atom
Dalton
unit of measurement for subatomic particles. ex. 1 proton or neutron = 1 dalton
Atomic Number
Number of protons
Mass Number
sum of prontons plus neutrons
Atomic weight
approximation of the total mass of an atom
Isotopes
Atoms which have more neutrons than other atoms of the same element and therefore weigh more
Radioactive Isotope
an isotope in which the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and enegry. The decay can change the # of protons... causing a change in the element
Energy
the ability to do work
Potential Energy
The energy that matter stores because of its position or location
Energy levels/ Electron shells
The different states of potential energy that electrons have in an atom. The shell closest tot he nucleus has the lowest amount of energy
Valence Electrons
Outermost electrons
valence Shell
Outermost electron shell
Orbital
The three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time
Chemical Bonds
Interactions which result in which atoms are held close together
Covalent bond
the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms
Molecule
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Structural Formula
the notation for the structure of molecules.
ex. H-H
Molecular Formula
Another notation for structure of molecules.
ex. H2
Double Covalent Bond
The sharing of two valence electrons
Valence
An atom's bonding capacity
Electronegativity
The attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
Electrons are shared equally
Polar Covalent Bond
Electrons are not shared equally
ion
A charged atom or molecule
cation
a positivly charged ion
Anion
a negativly chaged ion
ionic bond
when cations and anions attract
ionic compounds/ salts
compounds formed by ionic bonds
Hydrogen Bond
when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
Van der Waals interactions
wek interactions and only occur when atoms and molecules are very close together
Chemical reactiosn
the making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes in the composition of matter
Reactants
starting materials
Products
resulting materials
chemical equilibrium
the point at which the reactions offset one another exactly