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80 Cards in this Set

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Why does the MTSU Study Skills site say short study sessions are conducive to good memory
Short sessions, more often, create growth of dendrites and connections
is processing that organizes and integrates new information into previously stored information, often by making associations.
Breadth of processing
n the game show Jeopardy! contestants are tested on general information. The type of memory used to answer these kinds of questions is
Samantic
Flashbulb memories
usually concern events that are emotionally charged
Memories for general facts and personal information are called
Declaritive
Remembering your first day of college classes is an example of ________ memories
episodic
When trying to memorize a list of words, reading over them several times before recall is an example of
Reptition
occurs when having performed a task predisposes you to perform the same or an associated task again in the future.
Priming
is amnesia that leaves consolidated memories intact but prevents the storing of new facts.
Anterograde amnesia
is amnesia that disrupts previous memories
Retrograde amnesia
The first step in the memory process is _____________ information in a form that the memory system can use.
Encoding
Distributed practice in studying means to
study in short sessions spread out over time
A skill is like a habit, except that
skills are more flexible
is a failure to process to-be-remembered information well enough to ensure that is fully entered into long term memory
Encoding failure
The process of retaining information in memory is known as
Storage
is learning that occurs as a result of trying to learn
intentional Learning
is paying attention to characteristics that distinguish actual from imagined stimuli.
Reality monitoring
At the level of the brain, what effect does the stress hormone cortisol have on memory?
t can kill neurons in the hippocampus
The depth of processing concept of Craik and Lockhart would suggest that which of the following questions would lead to better memory of the word frog
would it be found in the pond
The key difference between priming and repetition priming is that, unlike priming, repetition priming usually involves
multiple exposures of the same stimuli
Suppose you're pitching in a baseball game facing a good hitter. You remember that you struck him out with a fastball the last time he was up. You also remember that your coach told you always to try to be unpredictable, so you decide to throw a curve ball this time. In making this decision, you are primarily using your ________.
Central executive
Which of the following statements is true about retrieval
It is a process of getting stored memories back out into consciousness.
The key difference between the pegword system and the method of loci is that, in the pegword system, instead of
places, you first memorize a set of objects in order
A set of neurons that serves to retain information over time is known as a
Memory store
are encoding strategies that produce great breadth of processing
Elaborative encoding
Loss of memory from the point of injury or illness forward is called
anterograde amnesia
is the act of intentionally bringing explicit information to awareness, which requires transferring the information from long-term memory to short-term memory.
Recall
The crucial difference between having a "good" memory and having a "bad" memory among most people is
The strategies people use when studying
Mateo is 70 years old and had a stroke last year. He is now unable to remember how to get to and return from his new doctor's office using a specific route. What brain structure was potentially damaged by Mateo's stroke
his hippocampus
When people hear a sound, their ears turn the vibrations in the air into neural messages from the auditory nerve, which makes it possible for the brain to interpret the sound. This process is called
encoding
How do cues help you to remember?
They direct you to relevant information stored in long-term memory
False memories are ________.
mostly memories that did not acure
are encoding strategies that produce great breadth of processing
Elaborative encoding
The memory system that includes two specialized short-term memories (i.e., auditory loop and visuospatial sketchpad) and a central executive that operates on information in the short-term memories to plan, reason, or solve a problem is known as _______________________.
Working memory
One aspect of sensory memory that distinguishes it from other types of memory is that
SM occurs automatically without conscious effort
The key to mnemonics is that they
link something new to something you already know
Recalling the definition of long-term memory is an example of
semantic memory
Candice is studying for her psychology multiple-choice exam by thinking about the various facts she has read and trying to distinguish the very similar ideas. As such, Candice appears to be engaged in _
transfer appropriate processing
How do cues help you to remember
They direct you to relevant information stored in long-term memory
are memories that cannot be retrieved voluntarily and brought into short-term memory but rather predispose a person to process information or behave in certain ways in the presence of specific stimuli.
implicit memories
A __________________ is an unusually vivid and detailed memory of a dramatic event.
flashblab memory
H. M., a famous amnesiac, gave researchers solid information that the ______________ was important in storing new long-term memories.
hippocramus
A patient's chart indicates he just had surgery to remove his hippocampus as a result of a tumor. What change do you anticipate in the patient after the operation?
The patient will not be able to remember new information.
Micah is trying to remember the specific route he took to the library the night before. What part of working memory is he accessing?
the visuospatial sketch pad
Why does distributed practice result in improved memory over massed practice?
Each time you study you provide more associations.
At the level of the brain, what effect does the stress hormone cortisol have on memory
It can kill neurons in the hippocampus.
The auditory form of sensory memory is called ________ memory.
In the research of Elizabeth Loftus (1993) and others, what percentage of participants reported an event that did not occur?
In the famous case of H. M., after having part of his brain removed, he could no longer
form new memories
The key difference between the pegword system and the method of loci is that, in the pegword system, instead of ________.
places, you first memorize a set of objects in order
In the research on false memories, why was it easier to implant some memories and not others?
The emotion evoked by the potentially implanted memory played a role.
Which memory system provides us with a very brief representation of all the stimuli present at a particular moment?
sensory memory
Declarative memories are sometimes referred to as ________ memories.
expicit
Which model of memory proposes that the deeper a person processes information, the better it will be remembered?
depth-of-processing model
The memory system that includes two specialized short-term memories (i.e., auditory loop and visuospatial sketchpad) and a central executive that operates on information in the short-term memories to plan, reason, or solve a problem is known as _______________________.
Working memory
According to the website on infantile amnesia, which kind of memories are less accessible after several months even though they are retrievable within a few hours?
Declarative memories
Candice is studying for her psychology multiple-choice exam by thinking about the various facts she has read and trying to distinguish the very similar ideas. As such, Candice appears to be engaged in ________.
Transfer appropriate processing
___________________ is the act of successfully matching an encoded stimulus to information about that stimulus that was previously stored in memory.
recognizable
n the 1950s, George Miller estimated the number of items that could be stored in short-term memory to be the magic number
7 plus or minus 2
________ refers to the process of paying attention to characteristics that distinguish actual from imagined stimuli.
Reality monitoring
Miller argued that STM could hold ________ chunks at once.
5 to 9
Memory retrieval that is better if it occurs in the same psychological state that was present when the information was first encoded is known as ____________________.
State-dependent retrieval
According to the website on infantile amnesia, the prefrontal cortex
matures at about the same time that memories become accessible
Specifically, what is a code?
a particular method for specifying information
Traditionally, what are repressed memories?
real memories pushed out of consciousness because they are emotionally threatening
According to the website on infantile amnesia language development is not a good explanation for the onset of memories from childhood because
pre-verbal babies can remember things for 6 months or more
Jerome is preparing for his philosophy essay exam and has decided to just employ basic memorization skills. What does transfer appropriate processing predict in this case?
he wiill do poorly on the test
Even though you may not remember the specific events that led you to have a certain opinion, your opinions nonetheless influence your behavior. This is because your opinions are often based on ________.
implicit behaviors
Recalling the definition of long-term memory is an example of ________.
semantic memory
Automatic processing, compared to controlled processing, involves less ________.
attention
Moishe can remember only the first two items and the last two items on the grocery list that his wife just read to him over the phone. The other five items in between are gone. His memory of things at the end of the list demonstrates the __________________.
recency effect
Ebbinghaus found that information is forgotten ____________.
quickly at first, then tapers off gradually
Which of the following is an example of a test using recall?
fill in the black
___________________ are memories of events that are associated with a particular time, place, and circumstance.
Episodic memories
paying attention to the amount of perceptual detail in one's memories
Reality monitoring can be improved by ________.
False memories are ________.
memories of events or situations that did not occur
Trying to remember someone's name whom you met long ago is an example of what type of process?
retrieval
In the depth-of-processing model of memory, information that gets processed at a ________ level (such as accessing the meaning of a word or phrase) is more likely to be retained longer and form a stronger memory than information that is processed at a _________ level (such as the visual characteristics of a word).
deeper; shallower
S's encoding and retrieval ability were enhanced by ________________.
S's encoding and retrieval ability were enhanced by ________________.
___________________ are memories of actual events that were pushed into the unconscious because they are emotionally threatening.
Repressed memories
Stimuli, thoughts, or feelings that trigger or enhance remembering are known as _________. They serve as reminders of an object or event.
cues