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35 Cards in this Set

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asexual reproduction
process in which a single cell or set of cells produces offspring that inherit all their genetic material from one parent
sexual reproduction
process in which genetic material from two parents combines and produces offspring that differ genetically from either parent
chromatin
combination of DNA and protein molecules, in the form of long, thin fibers, making up the genetic material in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
chromosome
condensed threads of genetic material formed from chromatin as a cell prepares to divide
sister chromatid
one of a pair of identical chromosomes created before a cell divides
centromere
region where two sister chromatids are joined tightly together
cell cycle
sequence of events from the production of a eukaryotic cell to the time the cell itself reproduces
interphase
stage of the cell cycle during which a cell carries out its metabolic processes and performs its functions in the body
interphase
stage of the cell cycle during which a cell carries out its metabolic processes and performs its functions in the body
mitotic phase
stage of the cell cycle when a cell is actively dividing
mitosis
process by which the nucleus and duplicated chromosomes of a cell divide and are evenly distributed, forming two daughter nuclei
cytokinesis
process by which the cytoplasm of a cell is divided in two; usually follows mitosis and meiosis
spindle
framework of microtubules that guide the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis
centrosome
region of cytoplasmic material that in animal cells contains structures called centrioles
prophase
first stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, when the already replicated chromosomes condense
metaphase
second stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II when the spindle is fully formed and all of the chromosomes are held in place
anaphase
third phase of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, in which the sister chromatids separate and move toward the poles of the spindle
telophase
final stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, in which the chromosomes reach the spindle poles, nuclear envelopes form around each set of daughter chromosomes, and the nucleoli reappear
cell plate
disk containing cell wall material that develops in plant cells during cytokinesis, eventually dividing the cell into two daughter cells
benign tumor
mass of cells that remain at their original site
malignant tumor
mass of abnormal cells resulting from uncontrolled cancer cell division
cancer
disease caused by severe disruption of the mechanisms that normally control the cell cycle
metastasis
spread of cancer cells beyond their original site in the body
meiosis
type of cell division that produces four cells, each with half as many chromosomes as the parent cell
karyotype
display of a person's 46 chromosomes
homologous chromosome
one of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent
sex chromosome
one of two chromosomes of the 23rd pair of human chromosomes, which determine an individual's gender
diploid
having two homologous sets of chromosomes
gamete
egg or sperm sex cell that contains a single set of chromosomes, one from each homologous pair
haploid
having a single set of chromosomes
fertilization
the fusion of the nucleus of a haploid sperm cell and the nucleus of a haploid egg cell, forming a diploid zygote
zygote
diploid cell formed when the nucleus of a haploid sperm cell fuses with the nucleus of a haploid egg cell
tetrad
group of four chromatids formed during prophase I of meiosis by the two sister chromatids in each of the two homologous chromosomes
crossing over
exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
genetic recombination
new combination of genetic information in a gamete as a result of crossing over during prophase I of meiosis