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50 Cards in this Set

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endocrine system
second great controlling system. Coordinates and directs the activity of the body's cells. more slowly acting and uses chemical messengers
hormones
chemical messengers which are released into the blood to be transported leisurely throughout the body. controls reproduction, growth and development, mobilizing body defenses against stressors, maintaining electrolyte, water, and nutrient balance of the blood and regulating cellular metabolism and energy balance
target cells/target organs
certain cells or organs that a hormone affects
negative feedback mechanism
chief means of regulating blood levels o nearly all hormones
hormonal stimulus
endocrine organs are produced into action by other hormones. Most common stimulus
ductless glands
produce hormones that they release into the blood or lymph
pituitary gland
about the size of a grape. Anterior pituitary (glandular tissue) and posterior pituitary (nervous tissue)
tropic hormones
stimulate their target organs, which are also endocrine glands, to secrete their hormones, which in turn exert their effects on other body organs and tissues.
growth hormone (GH)
metabolic hormone. Major effects are directed to the growth of skeletal muscles and long bones of the body. Plays important role in determining final body size.
prolactin (PRL)
protein hormone structurally similar to growth hormone. breast.
adrenocorticortropic hormone (ACGTH)
REGULATES THE ENDOCRINE ACTIVITY OF THE CORTEX PORTION OF THE ADRENAL GLAND
THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH)
influences growth and activity of the thyroid gland
gonadotropic hormones
regulate the hormonal activity o the gonads (ovaries and testes)
follicle-stimulating hormones (FSH)
stimulates follicle development in the ovaries in females. stimulates sperm development in testes
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
triggers ovulation of an egg from the female ovary and causes the ruptured follicle to become a corpus luteum
corpus luteum
produces progesterone and some estrogen
oxytocin
released in significant amounts only during childbirth and in nursing women. Stimulates powerful contractions of uterine muscle and milk ejaculation
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
second hormone released by the posterior pituitary
diuresis
urine production
thyroid gland
located on base of throat. two lobes joined by a central mass. Makes thyroid hormone and calcitonin
thyroid hormone
body's major metabolic hormone
thyroxine T4
major hormone secreted by the tyhroid follicles.
Triiodothyronine T3
formed at target tissues by conversion of T4 to t3
goiters
enlargement of the thyroid gland that results when the diet is deficient in iodine
cretinism
results in dwarism. Hyposecretion of thyroxine in children.
myxedema
hypothyroidism occurring in adults
calcitonin/thyrocalcitonin
decreases blood calcium levels by causing calcium to be deposited in the bones. second important hormone product in thyroid gland.
parathyroid glands
tiny masses of glandular tissue found on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
parathormone
most important regulator of calcium ion homeostasis of the blood
adrenal glands
curve over top of kidneys. two endocrine organs in one. glandular and neural tissue parts.
adrenal cortex
produces three major groups of steroid hormones called corticosteroids
corticosterioids
mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and sex hormones
mineralocorticoids
produced by outermost adrenal cortex cell layer. important in regulating mineral (salt) content of blood
renin
enzyme produced by kidneys when blood pressure drops. also causes release of aldosterone by triggering reactions that result in formation of angiostensin II
angiostensin II
potent stimulator of aldosterone release
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
hormone released by heart prevents aldosterone release. Goal is to reduce blood volume and pressure
glucocorticoids
produced by middle cortical layer. Includes cortisone and cortisol. promote normal cell metabolism and help body resist long-term stressors
androgens
male sex hormones
estrogens
female sex hormones
addison's disease
a generalized hyposecretion of all the adrenal cortex hormones. bronze tone of skin
hyperaldosteronism
hyperactivity o the outermost cortical area
cushing's syndrome
when tumor is in middle cortical area. Excessive output of glucocorticoids results in moon face and the appearance of a buffalo hump of fat on upper back
masculinization
hypersecretion of the sex hormones
adrenalmedulla
develops from a knot of nervous tissue.
epinephrine
also called adrenaline
catecholamines
epinephrine and norepinephrine combined
panreas
located close to the stomach in the abdominal cavity.
pancreatic islets
best-hidden endocrine glands. Islets of Langerhands.
insulin and glucagon
produced by the islet
beta cells
stimulated by high levels o glucose in the blood.