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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
human relations
interactions among people within
the organization
an inner force that moves individuals to take action
by objectives (MBO)
a company-wide process that empowers employees and
involves them in goal setting and decision making. This process consists of four
steps: setting goals, planning actions, implementing plans, and reviewing
Theories of Motivation
• Scientific Management
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
• McGregor’s Theory X, Theory Y
• Ouchi’s Theory Z
scientific management
an approach that sought to improve employee
efficiency through the scientific study of work. In Taylor’s view, people were
motivated almost exclusively by money, so he set up pay systems that rewarded
employees when they were productive.
The Hawthorne Effect
study concluded that the
workers were not responding to the lighting variations instead they were motivated
by all the attention they were getting. Test conditions made them feel special and
also gave them more freedom from supervisor control.
physiological needs, social needs.esteem needs.self-actualization
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Management can lessen
worker dissatisfaction by improving hygiene factors that concern employees, but
such improvements seldom influence satisfaction. On the other hand, managers can
help employees feel more motivated and, ultimately, more satisfied by paying
attention to motivators such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, and other
personally rewarding factors.
Herzberg’s theory is related to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
McGregor’s Assumptions
Theory X-oriented managers believe that employees
dislike work and can be motivated only by the fear of losing their jobs or by
extrinsic rewards such as money, promotions, and tenure. This management style
emphasizes physiological and safety needs and tends to ignore the higher-level
needs. In contrast, Theory Y-oriented managers believe that employees like work
and can be motivated by working for goals that promote creativity or for causes they
believe in. Thus, Theory Y-oriented managers seek to motivate employees through
intrinsic rewards.
Ouchi’s Theory Z
assumes that employees are more motivated if you involve them
in all aspects of company decision making and treat them like family.
Three of the most popular arrangements To meet today’s staffing and demographic challenges
flex time
job sharing