Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/11

Click to flip

11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
human relations
interactions among people within
the organization
Motivation
an inner force that moves individuals to take action
management
by objectives (MBO)
a company-wide process that empowers employees and
involves them in goal setting and decision making. This process consists of four
steps: setting goals, planning actions, implementing plans, and reviewing
performance.
Theories of Motivation
• Scientific Management
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
• McGregor’s Theory X, Theory Y
• Ouchi’s Theory Z
scientific management
an approach that sought to improve employee
efficiency through the scientific study of work. In Taylor’s view, people were
motivated almost exclusively by money, so he set up pay systems that rewarded
employees when they were productive.
The Hawthorne Effect
study concluded that the
workers were not responding to the lighting variations instead they were motivated
by all the attention they were getting. Test conditions made them feel special and
also gave them more freedom from supervisor control.
Maslow’s
Hierarchy
physiological
needs.safety needs, social needs.esteem needs.self-actualization
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Management can lessen
worker dissatisfaction by improving hygiene factors that concern employees, but
such improvements seldom influence satisfaction. On the other hand, managers can
help employees feel more motivated and, ultimately, more satisfied by paying
attention to motivators such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, and other
personally rewarding factors.
Herzberg’s theory is related to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
McGregor’s Assumptions
Theory X-oriented managers believe that employees
dislike work and can be motivated only by the fear of losing their jobs or by
extrinsic rewards such as money, promotions, and tenure. This management style
emphasizes physiological and safety needs and tends to ignore the higher-level
needs. In contrast, Theory Y-oriented managers believe that employees like work
and can be motivated by working for goals that promote creativity or for causes they
believe in. Thus, Theory Y-oriented managers seek to motivate employees through
intrinsic rewards.
Ouchi’s Theory Z
assumes that employees are more motivated if you involve them
in all aspects of company decision making and treat them like family.
Three of the most popular arrangements To meet today’s staffing and demographic challenges
flex time
telecommuting
job sharing