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73 Cards in this Set

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connective tissue composed of a liquid medium called plasma in wihch solid components are suspended
blood
cell fragments
thrombocytes (platelets)
bone marrow (myelogenic), tissue of the skull, ribs, sternum, vertebrae, and pelvis as well as at the ends of the long bones in the arms and legs
where blood cells are formed
undifferentiated cell where blood cells develop from
stem cell
the development and maturation of blood cells
hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis
red blood cell development
erythropoiesis
white blood cell development
leukopoiesis
platelet development
thrombopoeisis
carry oxygen and carbon dioxide
erythrocytes
iron-containing compound that gives erythrocytes their red color
hemoglobin
a small fragment of nuclear material that resembles a fine, lacy net
reticulocyte
after 120 days, these rupture, releasing hemoglobin and cell fragments
red blood cells (RBC)
iron compound
hemosiderin
protects the body against invasion by bacteria and foreign substances, removing debris from injured tissue, and aiding in the healing process
leukocytes
migration through the endothelial walls of capillaries and venules and enter tissue
diapedesis
the most abundant type of leukocyte that contains granules in their cytoplasm, and in their mature form, exhibit a multilobed nucleus
granulocyte
neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
three types of granulocytes
very motile and highly phagocytic, permitting them to ingestand devour bacteria and other particulate matter; the first cell to appear at a site of injury of infection to begin the work of phagocyting foreign matter
neutrophils
protect the body by releasing many substances capable of neutralizing toxic compounds; they increase in number during allergic reactions and animal parasite infections
eosinophils
release histamines and heparin when tissue is damaged
basophils
initiate inflammation, leading to increased blood flow
histamines
acts to prevent blood from clotting
heparin
arise in te bone marrow from stem cells; frequently called mononuclear leukocytes because their nuclei do not form lobes
agranulocytes
mildly phagocytic when found in blood vessels; when they exit the vascular system, they transform into macrophages
mnocytes
voracious phagocytes capable of ingesting pathogens, dead cells, and debris found at sites of inflammation
macrophages
include B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells
lymphocytes
the smallest formed elements found in blood; nottrue cells
platelets
the liquid portion of the blood in which blood cells are suspended
plasma
plasma - fibrinogen= ?
serum
consists of a fluid called lymph, a network of transporting vessels called lymph vessels, and a multiplicity of other structures, including nodes, spleen, thymus, and tonsils
lymph system
functions of the lymph system
maintaining the fluid balance of the body by draining extracellular fluid from tissue spaces returning it to the blood; transporting lipids away from the digestive organs for use by body tissues; filtering and removing unwanted or infectious products in lymph nodes
form of resistance that develops after birth and is the most complex in both structure and function; it develops throughout life as a result of exposure to one disease after another
acquired immune response
enter tissue spaces and become highly phagocytic macrophages; the consume large numbers of bacteria and other antigens
monocytes
protects primarily against extracellular antigens, such as bacteria and viruses, that have not yet entered a cell
humoral immunity
protects primarily against intracellular antigens such as viruses and also has the ability to destroy cancer cells
cellular immunity
these work independently of the specific immune response and it will attack any cell that appears abnormal, and does not require the specificity needed by T cells and B cells
natural killer (NK) cells
any condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is less than that required by the body
anemia
chronic, progressive disorder found mostly in people older than age 50; treated with B12 injections
prenicious anemia
most common genetic disorder in people of African descent; characterized by red blood cells that change from their normal shape to crescents and other irregular shapes that cannot enter capillaries when oxygen levels are low, resulting in sever pain and internal bleeding; only in patients with both genes for the trait
sickle cell anemia
transmissible infectious disease cause by HIV, which slowly destroys the immune system
AIDS
symptoms of AIDS
swollen lymph glands, malaise, fever, night sweats, and weight loss
an acquired abnormal immune response
allergy
failure of the body to distinguish accurately between "self" and "nonself"; the immune system attacks the antigens found on its own cells to such an extent that tissue injury results
autoimmune disease
autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junctions
myasthenia
other autimmune diseases
rheumatoid arthritis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), vasculitis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
abnormal accumulation of fluids in the interceullular spaces of the body
edema
hereditary disorder in which the blood clotting mechanism is impaired
hemophilia
deficiency in clotting factor VIII
hemophilia A
deficiency in clotting factor IX
hemophilia B
mild symptoms of hemophilia
nosebleeds, easy bruising, and bleeding from the gums
severe symptoms of hemophilia
areas of blood seepage (hematomas) deep within the muscles
oncological disorder of the blood-forming organs characterized by an overgrowth of blood cells; malignant cells replace healthy bone marrow cells
leukemia
a malignant disease that affects the lymphatic system, primarily th lymph nodes; begins with a painless enlargement of lymoh nodes, typically on one side of the neck, chest, or underarm
Hodgkin disease
other symptoms of Hodgin disease
extreme itching, weight loss, progressive anemia, and fever
malignancy of connective tissue including bone, fat, muscle, and fibrous tissue its closely associated with AIDS and is commonly fatal
Kaposi Sarcoma
immunity developed as consequence if exposure to an antigen and the subsequent development of antibodies
active immunity
immunity in which antibodies or other immune substances formed in one individual are transferred to another indvidual to provide immediate, temporary immunity
passive immunity
measurement of the amount of hemoglobin in a whole sample
hemoglobin (Hgb, Hb)
measurement of the percentage of packed RBCs in a whole blood sample; aka crit
hematocrit (Hct)
test used to assess the absorption of radioactive vitamin B12 by the GI system
Schilling test
injecting of blood or blood components into the bloodstream
transfusion
transfusion prepared from the recipiant's own blood
autologous
transfusion prepared from another individual whose blood is compatible with that of the recipiant
homologous
grafting of living tissue from its normal position to another site or from one person to another
transplantation
prevent blood clot formation by inhibiting one or more clotting factors
anticoagulants
prevent the replication of viruses within host cells
antivirals (t treat HIV-AIDS)
dissolve blood clots by destroying the fibrin strands that make up the clot
thrombolytics
AIDS
acquired immunodeficency syndrome
EBV
Epstein-Barr virus
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus
CBC
complete blood count
diff
differential count (WBC)
ABO
blood groups A, AB, B, and O