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92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
adren/o, adrenal/o
adrenal gland
to secrete
gluc/o. glyc/o
hormone (an urging on)
ket/o, keton/o
ketone bodies
thymus gland
thyr/o, thyroid/o
thyroid gland (shield)
adrenal glands, suprarenal glands
located on the superior surface of each kidney; the adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones, and the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
steroid hormones, glucocorticoids, mineral corticosteroids, androgens
regulate carbohydrate and salt and water balance; have some affect on sexual characteristics
affect sympathetic nervous system in stress response
affect parasympathetic system; helping return to homeostasis
located on both sides of the uterus in the female pelvis, secreting estrogen and progesterone
estrogen, progesterone
responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics and regulation of reproduction
pancreas (islets of Langerhans)
located behind the stomach in front of the first and second lumbar vertebrae, secreting insulin and glucagons
parathyroid glands
two paired glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck, secreting parathyroid hormone (PTH)
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
regulate carbohydrate and sugar metabolism
pineal gland
located in the center of the brain, secreting melatonin and serotonin
exact function unknown; affects onset of puberty
a neurotransmitter that serves as the precursor to melatonin
pituitary gland (hypophysis), anterior pituitary gland
located at the base of the brain; the anterior pituitary secrets thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, FSH, LH, prolactin; the posterior releases DH and oxytocin; anterior pituitary gland
thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH)
stimulates secretion from thyroid gland; anterior pituitary gland
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
stimulates secretion from adrenal cortex; anterior pituitary gland
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
initiates growth of ovarian follicle; stimulates secretion of estrogen in females and sperm production in males
luteinizing hormone (LH)
causes ovulation; stimulates secretion of progesterone by corpus luteum; causes secretion of testosterone in testes; anterior pituitary gland
melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
affects skin pigmentation; anterior pituitary gland
growth hormone (GH)
influences growth; anterior pituitary gland
prolactin (lactogenic hormone)
stimulates breast development and milk production during pregnancy; anterior pituitary gland
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
influences the absorption of water by kidney tubules; posterior pituitary
influences uterine contraction; posterior pituitary
located on both side within the scrotum in the male, secreting testosterone
affects masculinization and reproduction
thymus gland
located in the mediastinal cavity anterior to and above the heart secreting thymosin
regulates immune response
thyroid gland
located in front of the neck, secreting triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin
triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4)
regulate metabolism
regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
exophthalmos, exophthalmus
protrusion of one or both eyeballs, often because of thyroid dysfunction or a tumor behind the eyeball
glucosuria, glycosuria
glucose (sugar) in the urine
shaggy; an excessive growth of hair
an abnormally high level of calcium in the blood
an abnormally low level of calcium in the blood
high blood sugar
low blood sugar
an abnormally high level of potassium in the blood
deficient level of potassium in the blood
abnormally increased secretion
decreased secretion
ketosis, ketoacidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
presence of an abnormal amount of keytone bodies in the blood and urine indicating an abnormal use of carbohydrates, such as in uncontrolled diabetes and starvation
all chemical processes in the body that result in growth, generation of energy, elimination of waste, and other body functions
excessive thirst
excessive urination
crushing syndrome
excessive level of cortisol hormone from any cause; symptoms include upper body obesity, facial puffiness, weakness and easily bruised skin
adrenal virilism
excessive output of the adrenal secretion of androgen in adult women caused by tumor or hyperplasia
diabetes mellitus (DM)
metabolic disorder caused by the absnece or insufficient production of insulin secreted by the pancreas resulting in hyperglycemia and glycosuria
a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas responsible for regulating the metabolism of glucose
type 1 diabetes
diabetes in which there is no beta cell prodcution of insulin, and the patient is dependent on insulin for survival
type 2 diabetes
diabetes in which either the body does not produce enough insulin, or there is insulin resistance; usually not dependant for survival
condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in hypoglycemia, fainting, and convulsions; often caused by an overdose of insulin or by a tumor of the panaceas
inflammation of the pancreas
hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually caused by a tumor
hyposecretion of the parathyroid glands
disease characterized by enlarged features, especially the face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary growth hormone after puberty, when normal bone growth has stopped; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
pituitary dwarfism
condition of congenital hyposecretion of GH slowing growth and causing short yet proportionate stature, often treated during childhood with GH; other forms of dwarfism are most often caused by gene defects
pituitary gigantism
condition of hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood bone development that leads to an abnormal overgrowth of bone, especially of the long bones; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation
hyperthyroidism, Graves disease, thyrotoxicosis
condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by protrusion of the eyeball, tachycardia, goiter, and tumors
condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and often obesity
advanced hypothyroidism in adults characterized by sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness in hands and face, and dry skin
condition of congenital hypothyroidism in children that results in a lack of mental development and dwarfed physical stature
blood sugar (BS), blood glucose
measurement of the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood
fasting blood sugar (FBS)
measurement of blood sugar levels after fasting for 12 hours
postprandial blood sugar (PPBS)
measurement of blood sugar level after a meal
glucose tolerance test
measurement of the body’s ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a prescribed amount of glucose after a fasting period, then measuring blood and urine for glucose levels every hour thereafter for 4 to 6 hours
a molecule in hemoglobin that rises in the blood as a result of an increased level of blood sugar; common blood test used in diagnosing and treating diabetes
measurement of the level of specific ions in the blood
thyroid function study
measurement of thyroid hormone levels in blood plasma to determine efficiency of glandular secretions
urine sugar and ketone studies
chemical tests to determine that presence of sugar or ketone bodies in urine
thyroid uptake and image
nuclear image produced by a scan of the thyroid to visualize the radioactive accumulation of previously injected isotopes to detect thyroid nodules or tumors
excision of adrenal gland
excision of pituitary gland
excision of pancreas
excision of parathyroid gland
excision of thymus gland
excision of thyroid gland
radioiodine therapy
use of radioactive iodine to treat disease
a drug that raises blood glucose
hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
treatment with a hormone to correct a hormone deficiency
hypoglycemic antihyperglycemic
a drug that lowers blood glucose