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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two classifications for joints:

1)Anatomical or structural- (materials making up):
fibrous, cartilaginous, or synovial
2)physiological or funtional: Movement:
Synarthroses: no movement (sutures)
Amphiarthroses: slight movement
(pupic symphysis)
Diarthroses: free movement (knee)
Fibrous (Immovable) Joints (Synarthroses):
no space between the bones in the joint;
Thin layer of fibrous commective tissure holds the bones together, which is continuous with the periosteum
Fibrous (Immovable) Joints (Synarthroses):
Three kinds:
Occur when two bones have serrated, articulating surfaces;
They are immovalbe, only occur in the skull. Ex. Coronal Suture
Have more connective tissue between the bones than a suture does; They are slightly moveable, and the two bones are held together by ligaments. Ex: distal end of forearm bones and lower leg.
Found between the teeth and the alveolar processes of the mandible and maxilla; The fibrous part of the joint is the Periodontal Membrane.
Cartilaginous (slightly movable) joints (Amphiathroses)
Bones that are held together by cartilage; Two kinds, symphysis and synchondroses.
Slightly movalbe and are held together by fibrocartilage; allows mobility during child bearing by widening birth canal. Ex: Intervertebral discs and interpubic discs.
Joints held together with lots of hyaline cartilage; they allow for slight movement. Ex: joint between the ribs and sternum that is held together by the Costal Cartilages
Synovial (freely movalbe) Joints (Diarthroses)
Have free movement and use ligaments to hold the bones firmly together; The Joint Articular Capsule holds the 2 bones together and completely surrounds the joint, so it encleses the synovial cavity.
Synovial joints continued:
Made of two layers, and the outer fibrous layer is continuous with the periosteum of the bone.
Synovial Membrane and Fluid
inner layer that lines the inside of the fibrous layer; is vascular and the synovial is made from its blood. The Synovial fluid fills the joint cavity, lubricates the joint and nourishes the articular cartilage.
Articular Cartilage
covers the ends of the articulating bones and is made of hyaline cartilage with no nerves or blood vessels.
Joint (Synovial) Cavity
small space between the articulationg surgaces of 2 bomes; it allows the ends of the bones to move across each other.
Menisci (Articular Discs)
pads of fibrocartilage found between the ends of the 2 bones in some joints - they are found in the knee joint.
tough fibrous bands that connect the 2 articulating bones- they are made of dense white fibrous connective tissue, with lots of collagenous fibers for strength and some elastic fibers for flexibility.
Ligaments cont:
They are flexilbe, don't limit freedom of movement w/i normal range of motion.
Ligament funcitons:
Functions: bind articulating bones, strengthen articular capsule, guide movement at the joints, act as sensory organs for movement and position sense through the nerves that end in the ligaments.
Bursa aid movement by minimizing friction between 2 moving structures;
are small connective tissue sac lined with a synovial membrane, filled with a clear thick Synovial fluid that is secreted by the synovial membrane.
Bursa cont:
the synovial fluid is responsible for the cushioning effect of the bursa;
Bursa is located between 2 structures which move on each other and in which the friction needs to be decreased
Bursa cont:
Ex: between the skin and bone= elbow and knee, between the tendons and bone= shoulder, between muscle and bone=shoulder
BURSITIS: inflamation of a bursa
Types of Synovial Joints, which are classified according to the number of axis and planes the bones move in:
Uniaxial, biaxial, and muliaxial
Uniaxial Joints:
allows movements in only one axis and one plane. 2 types: Hinge joints and pivot joints.
Uniaxial- Hinge Joint:
have articular surfaces with one or more convex ) projections fitting into a concave ( surface or surfaces. They allow the movements of flexion and extension in one plane, the sagittal plane. Ex: elbow, interphalangeal, knee and jaw joints.
Uniaxial- Pivot Joints:
have articular surfaces with a small rounded projection that turns within a concave depression; They allow the movement of rotation around a longitudinal axis. Ex: b/t the radius and ulna at their proximal end (radio-ulnar joint) and b/t the axis and atlas.
Biaxial Joints:
Allow movement in two axis and in two planes, 2 types are Saddle and Condyloid.
Biaxial - Saddle Joint:
Have articular surgaces that are reciprocally concave-convex; each art. surface has both a concave and convex portion. Both portions fit together.
Saddle Joint cont:
it allows the movements of flexion and extension in one plane, plus abduction and adduction in a second plane; Ex:b/t the carpal and metacarpal of the thumb.
Biaxial- Condyloid (Ellipsoidal) joint:
have articular surfaces with an oval condyloid projection fitting into an elliptical concave depression; they allow the movements of flexion and extension in one plane and abduction and adduction in a second plane. Ex: is the wrist joint b/t the radius and carpals