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35 Cards in this Set

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Describe major milestones in the development of the infrastructure for professional and academic psychology in the US.
By the end of the 19th century: professional organization, journals, academic presence
By 1904, 49 laboratories 69 members of the APA, 62 institutions offering three or more courses psychology ranked fourth in the sciences with respect to the number of PhDs awarded.

schools in the west more interested in helping people, applying. not just learning about things as in the east.

Prior to the U. S. Civil War…ministers and the intellectual elite.
middle decades of the 19th century colleges upgraded their teaching in mathematics, physics, and astronomy and added subjects like chemistry, geology, and biology
by the late 19th century, scientific training accepted as a legitimate alternative to the classics as a means of instilling mental discipline
Why did early American psychologists and other social scientists seek doctoral degrees in Germany?
German schools were the only place to get professional training to start programs in the united states. German schools were the most prestigious.

academic expansion, especially in new disciplines such as psychology, created a critical demand for qualified PhDs.
many aspiring American educators in the new social scientific disciplines went to Europe for professional certification.
American psychologists were attracted to Wundts’ program largely because of the professional qualification it offered
advantages it provided them in securing positions and advancement at the more prestigious academic institutions back home.
Why did the development of American psychology so quickly overtake the development of German psychology?
American psychologists cited experimental rigor as the basis of the objectivity of their new science
some did question the identification of psychology with laboratory science.
Joseph Jastrow, the first person to gain a PhD in psychology in America (at Johns Hopkins), warned against equating scientific psychology with experimentalism.
William James, the first to introduce courses on the new physiological psychology, soon became skeptical of the utility of “brass instrument psychology” and championed a more practical and applied approach.

American psychologists simply adjusted their own laboratory-inspired scientific attitudes to whatever topics happened to interest them or to whatever opportunities for research happened to arise in their varied careers.

American psychologists were extremely skillful in presenting the new psychology not only as compatible with religion and traditional moral philosophy, but also as a great benefit to society.
entered into a fertile developmental relationship with American education
established intellectual authority with respect to the training of the new generation of teachers and the progressive reform of education
According to Titchener, what is the difference between structural and functional psychology?
Titchener claimed that the primary goal of experimental psychology was to describe the basic structure of the mind
the conscious elements of mind and their modes of combination.
characterized his form of psychology as structural psychology and distinguished it from functional psychology, which he claimed was primarily concerned with the functions of consciousness

His methods relied heavily on introspection
self-observation and reporting of conscious inner thoughts, desires and sensations
training of experimental subjects analogous to the calibration of scientific instruments
once experimental subjects were properly trained in hard introspective labor, they found that accurate introspection became a largely mechanical process

Titchener maintained that the experimental analysis of consciousness represented the hard core of scientific psychology and thought that the development of other branches was premature until the scientific core had been firmly established.
Structural psychology
the primary goal of experimental psychology was to describe the basic structure of the mind
the conscious elements of mind and their modes of combination.

His methods relied heavily on introspection
self-observation and reporting of conscious inner thoughts, desires and sensations
training of experimental subjects analogous to the calibration of scientific instruments
once experimental subjects were properly trained in hard introspective labor, they found that accurate introspection became a largely mechanical process
James-Lange theory of emotion
emotion is not the cause of physiological arousal and behavior, but is our experience of physiological arousal and behavior.
we should say that we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble, and not that we cry, strike or tremble because we are sorry, angry or fearful
Emotion is epiphenomenal (secondary to experience)
Clinical and industrial psychology
Witmer- He coined the term clinical psychology to describe a new diagnostic branch of applied psychology
“clinical” referenced the clinical method of medicine from which the diagnostic method was appropriated
claimed that the ultimate value of psychological science lay in its practical utility:
clinical psychology must be based upon case studies of individual persons with particular psychological problems
main reason for calling his form of applied psychology clinical psychology, because it was based upon the method of case histories associated with clinical medicine
he had little enthusiasm for the work of Freud, which was also based upon case histories

Walter D Scott- founder of American industrial psychology
created a series of mental tests designed to assess business skills & rating scales for employee selection
Industrial psychology expanded dramatically after the First World War, especially in the realm of personnel selection and evaluation, but also through studies of industrial efficiency.
The most famous I-O Psych studies were conducted at the Hawthorne, Illinois, plant of the Western General Electric Company during the 1920s and 1930s.
Studies indicated that changes in lighting and temperature improved efficiency
investigators later noted that almost any environmental change produced the same effect
a function of the apparent interest researchers (and by inference managers) were taking in workers progress (hawthorne effect).
Infrastructure for psychology in the U.S.
By the end of the 19th century
professional organization
journals
academic presence
By 1904,
49 laboratories
69 members of the APA
62 institutions offering three or more courses
psychology ranked fourth in the sciences with respect to the number of PhDs awarded

academic expansion, especially in new disciplines such as psychology, created a critical demand for qualified PhDs.
many aspiring American educators in the new social scientific disciplines went to Europe for professional certification.
American psychologists were attracted to Wundts’ program largely because of the professional qualification it offered
advantages it provided them in securing positions and advancement at the more prestigious academic institutions back home.

entered into a fertile developmental relationship with American education
established intellectual authority with respect to the training of the new generation of teachers and the progressive reform of education
Hall
First PhD on a psychological topic at Harvard
First lab and PhD program in US in 1883 at Johns Hopkins
First journal in 1887, American Journal of Psychology
Founded APA in 1892 and served as first president
By 1898, he had supervised 30 of the 54 psychology PhDs thus far awarded in the US

Genetic Psychology:based on the method of evolutionary biology
focused on the development of individual organisms, especially the (extended) development of human children
Hall made genetic psychology the foundation of his developmental and educational psychology
Goal: establish the course of normal child development so that teaching practices could be suitably adapted to it
Believed many differences in children’s abilities were innately determined, but that behavior is often the product of adaptive adjustment to environment


Hall’s own developmental research was focused on adolescence (ages 15-25)
adolescence is a critical period of developmental transition, during which humans rely on instincts as they abandon the habits of childhood and begin to embrace those of adulthood
thought that sex played an important role in child development and adolescence, although he did not embrace Freud’s psychosexual theories

Despite his free discussion of sexual matters and promotion of sex education, Hall was opposed to coeducation.
Since he believed that adolescence is a time of sexual catharsis for men and of preparation for motherhood for women, he thought their institutional physical proximity was a recipe for disaster.
But Hall’s program at Clark was more hospitable to women and minorities than most other psychology programs of the day
James
anticipated many of the later developments of scientific psychology, but did not found any distinctive school and had few theoretical disciples

At Harvard, James organized the informal meetings of the Metaphysical Society and successfully promoted pragmatism
outcome of these meetings was the development of the philosophical view known as pragmatism: the view that the adequacy of any theoretical system should be judged by its practical utility

pragmatist theory of truth, according to which a belief or proposition is true if it works satisfactorily in the widest sense of the word.
belief or proposition should be accepted as true if it satisfies our feelings or produces a beneficial effect
such as a religious belief or a belief that mineral baths relieve backache.

Set up first lab at Harvard (but wasn’t used much)
Students played a role in American psychology (but they did not develop in James’ direction)
Lange
James-Lange theory of emotion- emotion is not the cause of physiological arousal and behavior, but is our experience of physiological arousal and behavior.
we should say that we feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble, and not that we cry, strike or tremble because we are sorry, angry or fearful
Emotion is epiphenomenal (secondary to experience)
Witmer
He coined the term clinical psychology to describe a new diagnostic branch of applied psychology
“clinical” referenced the clinical method of medicine from which the diagnostic method was appropriated
claimed that the ultimate value of psychological science lay in its practical utility:

clinical psychology must be based upon case studies of individual persons with particular psychological problems
main reason for calling his form of applied psychology clinical psychology, because it was based upon the method of case histories associated with clinical medicine
he had little enthusiasm for the work of Freud, which was also based upon case histories
Titchner
Titchener claimed that the primary goal of experimental psychology was to describe the basic structure of the mind
the conscious elements of mind and their modes of combination.
characterized his form of psychology as structural psychology and distinguished it from functional psychology, which he claimed was primarily concerned with the functions of consciousness

His methods relied heavily on introspection
self-observation and reporting of conscious inner thoughts, desires and sensations
training of experimental subjects analogous to the calibration of scientific instruments
once experimental subjects were properly trained in hard introspective labor, they found that accurate introspection became a largely mechanical process


maintained that the validity of introspection as a scientific method, like the validity of inspection, is dependent upon inter-subjective agreement among observers about observed properties, whether these be the private objects of introspection or the public objects of inspection.
perceived failure to attain inter-subjective agreement among introspecting subjects that led to the demise of Titchener’s brand of experimental psychology.

Titchener maintained that the experimental analysis of consciousness represented the hard core of scientific psychology and thought that the development of other branches was premature until the scientific core had been firmly established.
charter member of the APA, but never attended its meetings.
He resigned from APA in 1904.
SEP- Society of Experimental Psychologists in 1929
Cattell
Cattell studied the psychometrics of attention and individual differences in the effects of fatigue and practice
initiated a program of mental testing based upon a variety of psychophysical measures, such as grip strength, speed of movement, skin sensitivity, and sensory and motor reaction time
coined the term mental test in reference to these measures

assumed that his various tests were measures of intelligence and thus useful indicators of academic performance.
assumption was seriously undermined when one of his own students, Clark Wissler, attempted to validate it by exploring the correlation between test scores and course grades.
Wissler found almost zero correlation.

He owned and edited Popular Science Monthly, American Men of Science, School and Society, American Naturalist, and Science
founded the highly successful Psychological Corporation in 1921 (with Robert Woodworth & E. L. Thorndike)
marketed psychological expertise to the business community (became a subsidiary of Harcourt in 1974)
Munsterberg
greater promoter of American psychology
developed applied fields of psychology such as psychotherapy, forensic psychology, and industrial psychology.

eyewitness testimony- biased and distorted nature of perception and memory.
police interrogation
precursors of modern lie- detector machines
conducted studies of personnel selection, task- oriented aptitude testing, work efficiency, motivation, marketing, sales, and advertising

Supported Germany’s position before and during the First World War. He was vilified by the press and suspected of being a spy.
State three reasons why psychologists turned to applied psychology in the early twentieth century.
shortage of academic jobs in teaching and research
public and professional demand for psychological services
flight from teaching overload
growth of state- supported public universities in the West
What did John Dewey mean when he declared that all psychology is social psychology?
Dewey’s effective denial of instinctual constraints on human psychology and behavior is perhaps best illustrated by his famous claim that all psychology is . . . social psychology.
By this he meant that most psychological and behavioral capacities and liabilities are the product of social learning, which can be redirected through alternative forms of social learning through education and training.
Why was the albino rat such a popular subject for the study of animal learning?
The perceived relevance of the experimental analysis of animal behavior for human psychology changed for the better as psychology became increasingly applied. Yet as it did so, animal psychologists abandoned the original conception of a genetic psychology based upon the comparative naturalistic observation of animal and human development and began to focus on the experimental study of the learning abilities of a limited number of animal species, most notably the domesticated albino variant of the Norwegian rat.
The albino rat had a number of advantages for research in neurology and psychology, including its slow rate of physiological, neural, and psychological maturation.


American psychologists treated the albino rat as a generic animal model that could be used to represent developmental and learning processes common to all vertebrates, including human .
In this fashion the assumption of strong continuity between human and animal psychology and behavior that underpinned the standard behaviorist generalization from animal to human behavior was built into the industrial standard production model of the albino rat.


Watson argued that animal psychology should be restricted to the identification of observable stimulus- response sequences.
Five years later, Watson extended this argument to human psychology when he advanced his behaviorist position
In promoting his position, Watson derived support from the work of Edward L. Thorndike in America and Ivan Pavlov in Russia, both of whom had taken up Morgan’s implicit challenge to develop accounts of animal behavior without reference to consciousness and cognition and had suggested that these accounts could be generalized to the explanation of human behavior.
State the three reasons that Watson gave for abandoning all references to consciousness and cognition in human psychology.
1- such references are redundant in animal psychology.
2- failure of structural psychology.
3- practical irrelevance of a psychology of consciousness. He maintained that psychology would attain substantive practical benefits by adopting a behaviorist approach.
Watson rejected theoretical references to consciousness and cognition as illegitimate in human psychology, but only insofar as they were interpreted and defined in terms of introspective analysis. He did not deny the existence of human consciousness or cognition per se.
Compare and contrast the approach taken to social engineering by the behaviorists and eugenicists.
Functional psychologists believed they could exploit their knowledge of human adaptability to improve education, training, personnel selection, and mental health and to relieve psychological and behavioral disorders that were products of individual maladjustment.
This vision of psychology as a science that could surmount the constraints of evolution by natural selection and improve the human condition was shared by later behaviorist psychologists and by eugenicists in the mental testing movement, who argued that many aspects of human psychology and behavior are determined by heredity.



MENTAL TESTING/ IMMIGRATION/ STERILIZATION

COMMITTEE FOR THE HEREDITY OF FEEBLEMINDEDNESS- Goddard and Terman served on the 1914 Committee for the Heredity of Feeblemindedness, which also included Thorndike, Yerkes, Walter B. Cannon, and Alexander Graham Bell.
Committee recommended a negative eugenics program:
the sterilization of mental defectives, along with other defective classes such as criminals and the insane.

The first state law licensing the sterilization of the feebleminded was passed in Indiana in 1907, although it was eventually struck down by the state supreme court. However, other states followed the recommendations.
By the 1920’s close to 30 states had such laws and by 1930 12,000 people had been sterilized.
The Commonwealth of Virginia repealed the last sterilization law as late as 1981 (a formal apology to the victims of the law was issued 20 years later).

Binet-Simon Intelligence Test
Alfred Binet (1857-1911) developed a series of tests designed to identify retarded but educable children in the French elementary school system, which had expanded dramatically in the late 19th century when primary education became compulsory.
With his research assistant, Theodore Simon, Binet published a series of papers in 1905 describing a new scale for measuring child intelligence. This scale, which included 30 items ranked in order of difficulty, was administered to large numbers of schoolchildren between 1905 and 1908.


Goddard and Terman did not follow Binet and Simon in treating their scales as merely useful instruments for identifying children in need of remedial education.
They treated them as objective measures of genetically determined levels of intelligence, to be employed in interventionist programs of social engineering.


Goddard managed to persuade immigration officers at Ellis Island that he was able to identify the feebleminded among the increasing numbers of eastern and southern Europeans of poor stock ( in comparison to northern and western Europeans of good stock) then immigrating to the United States.
Impressed by Goddard’s ability to identify the feebleminded by sight and then have his identification objectively confirmed by their low scores on the Binet- Simon test
(although the translators who administered the test complained that they would not have been able to answer questions about the New York Giants when they first came to America).
As immigration inspectors began to make use of Goddard’s intelligence tests, they refused entry to increasing numbers of immigrants on grounds of feeblemindedness.
Functional psychology
intellectual creation of Titchener, who distinguished between his own form of structural psychology, concerned with the experimental analysis of consciousness, and functional psychology, concerned with the functions of consciousness
functional psychology was not committed to any distinctive theoretical or methodological position.
merely aimed to broaden the scope of psychology beyond Titchener’s structuralism
maintained that it was equivalent to American psychology, defined by its dual emphasis on scientific rigor and practical application


Historians of psychology often represent functional psychology as grounded in Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, as did functional psychologists themselves. But,
did not develop systematic explanations of human and animal psychology and behavior in terms of the survival value of inherited psychological and behavioral traits.
much greater emphasis on the plasticity of human psychology and behavior
individual adaptation and learning as an affirmation of the reality and efficacy of consciousness and purpose in human behavior and development
Early behaviorism
behaviorism: the position advocated by John B. Watson who saw psychology as a positivist science restricted to the correlation of observable stimuli and responses and rejected mentalistic explanations of behavior

Only a handful of psychologists devoted themselves to the study of animal behavior in the first decade of the 20th century, why?
Animal psychology was criticized by traditional philosophers and structural psychologists as largely irrelevant to human psychology
institutions that supported animal psychology were subject to public criticism and campaigns by anti vivisectionists.
Most college administrators were reluctant to provide funds for the care and maintenance of animals in addition to the chronoscopes and reaction timers of the traditional psychology laboratory.
Most PhD students who did dissertation research on topics in animal psychology ended up in education,
and most doctoral students in psychology considered animal psychology a doubtful and precarious career choice.

Watson argued that animal psychology should be restricted to the identification of observable stimulus- response sequences.
Five years later, Watson extended this argument to human psychology when he advanced his behaviorist position
In promoting his position, Watson derived support from the work of Edward L. Thorndike in America and Ivan Pavlov in Russia, both of whom had taken up Morgan’s implicit challenge to develop accounts of animal behavior without reference to consciousness and cognition and had suggested that these accounts could be generalized to the explanation of human behavior.
Classical conditioning
During the first decade of his career, Pavlov focused his research on the physiological study of the digestive system, which won him the Nobel Prize in 1904. In his Nobel address, he mentioned the problem of psychic secretions that was to occupy him for the next three decades.

Pavlov reported that his laboratory dogs salivated in reflexive reaction not only to food stimuli (in the form of meat powder), but also to associated stimuli, such as the sight or sound of the experimenter.

In the case of an unconditioned reflex, an unconditioned stimulus (US), such as food powder placed in a dog’s mouth, generates an unconditioned response (UR), such as salivation.
In the case of a conditioned reflex, Pavlov and his students demonstrated that an originally neutral stimulus, such as the sound of a metronome, will function as a conditioned stimulus (CS) and elicit a conditioned response ( CR), such as salivation, after repeated pairing of the originally neutral stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus.

extinction
the attenuation of a conditioned response when a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus,
spontaneous recovery
the tendency of a conditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response after some time has passed since extinction
disinhibition
the tendency of any strong stimulus to elicit a conditioned response after extinction

Pavlov eschewed appeals to consciousness and cognition in the explanation of animal learning.
all animal and human behavior could be explained in terms of the influence of external stimuli without reference to any fantastic internal world
reductively materialistic and atomistic
the ultimate explanation of all innate and learned responses was neurophysiological in nature, and all complex conditioned reflexes were additive functions of elementary reflexes
Intelligence testing
Binet-Simon Intelligence Test
Alfred Binet (1857-1911) developed a series of tests designed to identify retarded but educable children in the French elementary school system, which had expanded dramatically in the late 19th century when primary education became compulsory.
With his research assistant, Theodore Simon, Binet published a series of papers in 1905 describing a new scale for measuring child intelligence. This scale, which included 30 items ranked in order of difficulty, was administered to large numbers of schoolchildren between 1905 and 1908.

The Binet- Simon scale (revised again in 1911, just before Binet’s death) was a great success in Europe and was translated into a variety of languages.
It provided an objective measure of general intelligence that was easy to administer, although Binet and Simon stressed the limitations of their test. They held that their scale was a useful instrument for identifying children in need of special remedial education and not a measure of a fixed level of intelligence.
They devised special programs of education by which they hoped to raise the mental level of retarded children.

Caution was thrown to the winds when Henry H. Goddard (1866-1957) and Lewis M. Terman (1877-1956) imported the Binet- Simon scale to America.
Terman’s 1916 revision of the Binet- Simon scale was more than a translation.
included 36 additional items and was calibrated in relation to a substantial standardization sample drawn from California schools.

The Stanford- Binet scale, as it came to be known, was designed to ensure that the average child at any age between 5 and 16 would test at that age.
The average 10- year- old would test at the mental age of 10, and the average intelligence quotient (IQ) for any age would be 100.
Terman defined the intelligence quotient ( IQ) as Sterns mental quotient (the ratio of mental age to chronological age) multiplied by 100.
The Stanford- Binet scale became the standard American intelligence test until it was itself revised in 1937.

Goddard and Terman did not follow Binet and Simon in treating their scales as merely useful instruments for identifying children in need of remedial education.
They treated them as objective measures of genetically determined levels of intelligence, to be employed in interventionist programs of social engineering.

the new self- confidence of applied psychologists led them down a number of dangerous roads.
One alarming finding of the Army Testing Project during WWI was that around half of the army recruits tested at or below the level of moron, defined by Goddard as between the mental age of 8 and 12 ( with an IQ of between 50 and 70).
Goddard claimed that the army test results demonstrated that half the human race [is] little above the moron.

McDougall’s “Is America Safe for Democracy?” (1921) contained specific recommendations for programs of positive and negative eugenics to reverse the perceived downtrend in levels of intelligence.
Goddard’s own “Human Efficiency and Levels of Intelligence” ( 1920) expressed dark thoughts about the future of democracy and
argued that the average mental age of other races, including blacks, was much lower than the average mental age of (male) whites.
He recommended that intelligence tests should be employed to disenfranchise those of low intelligence, as well as to determine the suitability of job applicants.

A few psychologists urged caution and warned about the dangers of jumping to conclusions on the basis of limited data.
Watson and the anthropologist Franz Boas vigorously challenged hereditarian assumptions about intelligence.
Walter Lippmann challenged the idea that psychologists had developed objective measures of intelligence.
He dismissed the claim that the average intelligence of adult Americans was little above the level of a moron as equivalent to the absurd claim that the average intelligence of adults was below the average intelligence of adults.

Goddard and Terman served on the 1914 Committee for the Heredity of Feeblemindedness, which also included Thorndike, Yerkes, Walter B. Cannon, and Alexander Graham Bell.
Committee recommended a negative eugenics program:
the sterilization of mental defectives, along with other defective classes such as criminals and the insane.

The first state law licensing the sterilization of the feebleminded was passed in Indiana in 1907, although it was eventually struck down by the state supreme court. However, other states followed the recommendations.
By the 1920’s close to 30 states had such laws and by 1930 12,000 people had been sterilized.
The Commonwealth of Virginia repealed the last sterilization law as late as 1981 (a formal apology to the victims of the law was issued 20 years later).
Committee on feeblemindedness
Goddard and Terman served on the 1914 Committee for the Heredity of Feeblemindedness, which also included Thorndike, Yerkes, Walter B. Cannon, and Alexander Graham Bell.
Committee recommended a negative eugenics program:
the sterilization of mental defectives, along with other defective classes such as criminals and the insane.

The first state law licensing the sterilization of the feebleminded was passed in Indiana in 1907, although it was eventually struck down by the state supreme court. However, other states followed the recommendations.
By the 1920’s close to 30 states had such laws and by 1930 12,000 people had been sterilized.
The Commonwealth of Virginia repealed the last sterilization law as late as 1981 (a formal apology to the victims of the law was issued 20 years later).
Thorndike
Thorndike’s cats were food-deprived and placed in slatted cages: They were required to open a latch (or series of latches) in order to escape and receive a food reward. The cats initially responded in a random fashion. They clawed and bit at the bars, sniffed around the cage, pushed their paws between the bars, and tried to squeeze between them. Eventually they hit upon the movement required to release the latch, which enabled them to escape and receive the food reward. On subsequent trials, the cats exhibited less and less random behavior until they learned the required behavior, which they would then produce whenever they were placed in the puzzle- box.

Thorndike measured the decreased time it took for animals to produce the required behavior and the decreased number of incorrect responses over the series of trials until learning was completed.
His data indicated that the required response was learned incrementally, rather than through any spontaneous act of insight or reasoning.
By varying the conditions, Thorndike also demonstrated that that learning was not a product of imitation, since the observation of successful responses by other cats did not decrease the time it took for a cat to learn the correct response.

Thorndike’s theory of learning, which he characterized as connectionism, appealed to traditional principles of association based upon contiguity and repetition.
However, he focused on associations between behavior and its consequences rather than associations between ideas (although the main principle of the law of effect had been recognized by Hartley, Spencer, and Bain).
Indeed, part of the point of Thorndike’s experiments was to demonstrate that animal learning did not involve any form of insight, reasoning, or association of ideas.

Of several responses made to the same situation, those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will, other things being equal, be more firmly connected with the situation, so that, when it recurs, they will be more likely to recur; those which are accompanied or closely followed by discomfort to the animal will, other things being equal, have their connections with that situation weakened, so that, when it recurs, they will be less likely to occur. The greater the satisfaction or discomfort, the greater the strengthening or weakening of the bond.” (1911, p. 244)

“Any response to a situation will, other things being equal, be more strongly connected with the situation in proportion to the number of times it has been connected with that situation and to the average vigor and duration of the connections.” (1911, p. 244)

Thorndike rather rashly concluded from his experiments that all animal and human behavior could be explained in terms of the laws of effect and exercise and the law of instinct.
For such conclusions he was roundly criticized, largely on the basis of the artificiality of his experimental studies.
Thorndike defended his theory and methods vigorously.
Yet by the late 1920s he was forced to modify his theoretical position.
He abandoned the law of exercise and the second half of the law of effect relating to the weakening of connections with discomfort

Later behaviorists treated his research as exemplary, but Thorndike himself was no behaviorist.
He recognized the limitations of his account of learning with respect to distinctive human capacities such as language.

Later behaviorists treated Thorndike’s research as exemplary because he did not appeal to consciousness or cognition in his connectionist account of trial-and- error learning.
Thorndike did make reference to mental states such as satisfaction, annoyance, and discomfort in his statement of the law of effect, and he insisted that it was a virtue of his experimental method that it provided information about the feelings of animals.
Watson
not the first to adopt the behaviorist position, but was undoubtedly its most forceful and successful advocate.
maintained that psychology is a positivist science of prediction and control, based upon the description of behavior and its observable antecedents.
Aside from his rejection of introspection, Watson’s basic positivist position was remarkably similar to Titchener’s. Like Titchener, he advocated an experimental science based upon repeatable observations, but focused upon observations of behavior rather than the introspection of mental states.
His behaviorism was in fact little more than a restatement of traditional empiricist and associationist principles transposed from the realm of privately introspectable mental states to publicly observable behavior. '
reasons for abANDONING references to cognition:
such references are redundant in animal psychology.
failure of structural psychology.
practical irrelevance of a psychology of consciousness. He maintained that psychology would attain substantive practical benefits by adopting a behaviorist approach.
Watson rejected theoretical references to consciousness and cognition as illegitimate in human psychology, but only insofar as they were interpreted and defined in terms of introspective analysis. He did not deny the existence of human consciousness or cognition per se.

similar but more radical than sechenov
Sechenov had maintained that thought is only the proximate cause of behavior, which is itself determined by external environmental stimuli.
Watson denied that thought is even the proximate cause of behavior.
He maintained that thought is a behavioral response to environmental stimuli that plays no role in the generation of other forms of behavior.
He treated thought as an epiphenomenal by- product of the habit mechanisms underlying stimulus-response laws.

Following an affair with a student and his divorce, Watson turned to a career in advertising, in which he achieved even greater success than he had in academia.
He developed strategies for predicting and controlling consumer behavior that were far more effective than any of his earlier forays into animal and human psychology.
He increased the sales of products such as Johnsons Baby Powder, Ponds Cold Cream, and Maxwell House Coffee and initiated marketing strategies such as demographic surveys and free samples.
He invented the coffee break to sell coffee and introduced candy at supermarket checkouts to ambush mothers and their children.

“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well- formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select a doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant- chief and yes, even into beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors.” (1924/ 1930, pp. 103 104)

Watson virtually denied the existence of inherited instincts, traits, and abilities and proclaimed that, given the resources, a behaviorist psychology could be employed to create any type of human being that society desired.
Baldwin
Evidence
Wundt’s studies of reaction time employing trained experimental subjects in the Leipzig laboratory had indicated that sensory reaction times are longer than motor reaction times.
Titchener had replicated this result with trained experimental subjects in the Cornell laboratory.
Baldwin, working with untrained subjects at Princeton, found that motor reaction times are often longer than sensory reaction times and that there are significant individual differences in both sensory and motor reaction times.


A fundamental disagreement between them concerning the subject matter and methods of psychology.
For Titchener, scientific psychology was directed to the study of the universal dimensions of the normal adult human mind via the introspective reports of trained subjects, based upon the method of controlled experimentation in physics and physiology.
Baldwin maintained that scientific psychology was as much concerned with the study of individual differences in human psychology and behavior, based upon the naturalistic observational methods of developmental biology and comparative psychology.
Baldwin’s claim that individual differences in human psychology and behavior were a legitimate subject of psychological study was repeated by later functional psychologists
Titchner
Created Functional Psychology

intellectual creation of Titchener, who distinguished between his own form of structural psychology, concerned with the experimental analysis of consciousness, and functional psychology, concerned with the functions of consciousness
functional psychology was not committed to any distinctive theoretical or methodological position.
merely aimed to broaden the scope of psychology beyond Titchener’s structuralism
maintained that it was equivalent to American psychology, defined by its dual emphasis on scientific rigor and practical application

Fxnal Psych vs Evolution
Historians of psychology often represent functional psychology as grounded in Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, as did functional psychologists themselves. But,
did not develop systematic explanations of human and animal psychology and behavior in terms of the survival value of inherited psychological and behavioral traits.
much greater emphasis on the plasticity of human psychology and behavior
individual adaptation and learning as an affirmation of the reality and efficacy of consciousness and purpose in human behavior and development


Baldwin and Tichner's Debates on Reaction time
Evidence
Wundt’s studies of reaction time employing trained experimental subjects in the Leipzig laboratory had indicated that sensory reaction times are longer than motor reaction times.
Titchener had replicated this result with trained experimental subjects in the Cornell laboratory.
Baldwin, working with untrained subjects at Princeton, found that motor reaction times are often longer than sensory reaction times and that there are significant individual differences in both sensory and motor reaction times.

Interpretation
A fundamental disagreement between them concerning the subject matter and methods of psychology.
For Titchener, scientific psychology was directed to the study of the universal dimensions of the normal adult human mind via the introspective reports of trained subjects, based upon the method of controlled experimentation in physics and physiology.
Baldwin maintained that scientific psychology was as much concerned with the study of individual differences in human psychology and behavior, based upon the naturalistic observational methods of developmental biology and comparative psychology.
Baldwin’s claim that individual differences in human psychology and behavior were a legitimate subject of psychological study was repeated by later functional psychologists
Dewey
the movement that came to be known as functional psychology was developed by John Dewey and James Roland Angell and inaugurated institutionally when they came to the newly founded department of philosophy at the newly founded University of Chicago in 1894.
Through his emphasis on the role of conscious purpose in adaptive responses to environmental change and his interventionist approach to education, Dewey championed the view that scientific psychology and pedagogy could develop strategies for surmounting human limitations and promoting positive psychological and social change.

Social Psychology
Dewey’s effective denial of instinctual constraints on human psychology and behavior is perhaps best illustrated by his famous claim that all psychology is . . . social psychology.
By this he meant that most psychological and behavioral capacities and liabilities are the product of social learning, which can be redirected through alternative forms of social learning through education and training.

Reflex Arc or Circuit
Dewey attacked the atomism and mechanism of prevalent conceptions of the reflex arc, which he argued ought to be conceived as a circuit rather than an arc.
Dewey claimed that adaptive adjustments to the environment cannot be reduced to discrete stimulus- response sequences, any more than consciousness can be reduced to an aggregation of elemental sensational units.
Using James’s example of a child attracted to a flame, Dewey argued that the original stimulus is transformed by the child’s adaptive behavior of withdrawing her hand from the flame when it is burned, so that the flame is consequently perceived as a source of pain rather than attraction
According to Dewey, the mechanistic reduction of adaptive behavior to discrete stimulus- response sequences ignores the purposive direction of behavior, within a continuous process of learning guided by consciousness.

Functional psychologists believed they could exploit their knowledge of human adaptability to improve education, training, personnel selection, and mental health and to relieve psychological and behavioral disorders that were products of individual maladjustment.
This vision of psychology as a science that could surmount the constraints of evolution by natural selection and improve the human condition was shared by later behaviorist psychologists and by eugenicists in the mental testing movement, who argued that many aspects of human psychology and behavior are determined by heredity.
Pavlov
During the first decade of his career, Pavlov focused his research on the physiological study of the digestive system, which won him the Nobel Prize in 1904. In his Nobel address, he mentioned the problem of psychic secretions that was to occupy him for the next three decades.

Conditioned Responses- Pavlov reported that his laboratory dogs salivated in reflexive reaction not only to food stimuli (in the form of meat powder), but also to associated stimuli, such as the sight or sound of the experimenter.

Unconditioned vs Conditioned- In the case of an unconditioned reflex, an unconditioned stimulus (US), such as food powder placed in a dog’s mouth, generates an unconditioned response (UR), such as salivation.
In the case of a conditioned reflex, Pavlov and his students demonstrated that an originally neutral stimulus, such as the sound of a metronome, will function as a conditioned stimulus (CS) and elicit a conditioned response ( CR), such as salivation, after repeated pairing of the originally neutral stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus.

Pavlov never used a bell as a conditioned stimulus. The cultural myth that he did derives from the fact that the artist who transposed the illustration of his experimental set- up for an American translation of Pavlov’s work substituted a bell for the original metronome.


extinction
the attenuation of a conditioned response when a conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with an unconditioned stimulus,
spontaneous recovery
the tendency of a conditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response after some time has passed since extinction
disinhibition
the tendency of any strong stimulus to elicit a conditioned response after extinction

Pavlov eschewed appeals to consciousness and cognition in the explanation of animal learning.
all animal and human behavior could be explained in terms of the influence of external stimuli without reference to any fantastic internal world
reductively materialistic and atomistic
the ultimate explanation of all innate and learned responses was neurophysiological in nature, and all complex conditioned reflexes were additive functions of elementary reflexes
Binet
Binet-Simon Intelligence Test
Alfred Binet (1857-1911) developed a series of tests designed to identify retarded but educable children in the French elementary school system, which had expanded dramatically in the late 19th century when primary education became compulsory.
With his research assistant, Theodore Simon, Binet published a series of papers in 1905 describing a new scale for measuring child intelligence. This scale, which included 30 items ranked in order of difficulty, was administered to large numbers of schoolchildren between 1905 and 1908.

The Binet- Simon scale (revised again in 1911, just before Binet’s death) was a great success in Europe and was translated into a variety of languages.
It provided an objective measure of general intelligence that was easy to administer, although Binet and Simon stressed the limitations of their test. They held that their scale was a useful instrument for identifying children in need of special remedial education and not a measure of a fixed level of intelligence.
They devised special programs of education by which they hoped to raise the mental level of retarded children.
Simon
Binet-Simon Intelligence Test
Alfred Binet (1857-1911) developed a series of tests designed to identify retarded but educable children in the French elementary school system, which had expanded dramatically in the late 19th century when primary education became compulsory.
With his research assistant, Theodore Simon, Binet published a series of papers in 1905 describing a new scale for measuring child intelligence. This scale, which included 30 items ranked in order of difficulty, was administered to large numbers of schoolchildren between 1905 and 1908.

The Binet- Simon scale (revised again in 1911, just before Binet’s death) was a great success in Europe and was translated into a variety of languages.
It provided an objective measure of general intelligence that was easy to administer, although Binet and Simon stressed the limitations of their test. They held that their scale was a useful instrument for identifying children in need of special remedial education and not a measure of a fixed level of intelligence.
They devised special programs of education by which they hoped to raise the mental level of retarded children.
Terman
Caution was thrown to the winds when Henry H. Goddard (1866-1957) and Lewis M. Terman (1877-1956) imported the Binet- Simon scale to America.
Terman’s 1916 revision of the Binet- Simon scale was more than a translation.
included 36 additional items and was calibrated in relation to a substantial standardization sample drawn from California schools.

The Stanford- Binet scale, as it came to be known, was designed to ensure that the average child at any age between 5 and 16 would test at that age.
The average 10- year- old would test at the mental age of 10, and the average intelligence quotient (IQ) for any age would be 100.
Terman defined the intelligence quotient ( IQ) as Sterns mental quotient (the ratio of mental age to chronological age) multiplied by 100.
The Stanford- Binet scale became the standard American intelligence test until it was itself revised in 1937.

Goddard and Terman did not follow Binet and Simon in treating their scales as merely useful instruments for identifying children in need of remedial education.
They treated them as objective measures of genetically determined levels of intelligence, to be employed in interventionist programs of social engineering.

Goddard and Terman served on the 1914 Committee for the Heredity of Feeblemindedness, which also included Thorndike, Yerkes, Walter B. Cannon, and Alexander Graham Bell.
Committee recommended a negative eugenics program:
the sterilization of mental defectives, along with other defective classes such as criminals and the insane.

The first state law licensing the sterilization of the feebleminded was passed in Indiana in 1907, although it was eventually struck down by the state supreme court. However, other states followed the recommendations.
By the 1920’s close to 30 states had such laws and by 1930 12,000 people had been sterilized.
The Commonwealth of Virginia repealed the last sterilization law as late as 1981 (a formal apology to the victims of the law was issued 20 years later).
Goddard
Caution was thrown to the winds when Henry H. Goddard (1866-1957) and Lewis M. Terman (1877-1956) imported the Binet- Simon scale to America.
Terman’s 1916 revision of the Binet- Simon scale was more than a translation.
included 36 additional items and was calibrated in relation to a substantial standardization sample drawn from California schools.

The Stanford- Binet scale, as it came to be known, was designed to ensure that the average child at any age between 5 and 16 would test at that age.
The average 10- year- old would test at the mental age of 10, and the average intelligence quotient (IQ) for any age would be 100.
Terman defined the intelligence quotient ( IQ) as Sterns mental quotient (the ratio of mental age to chronological age) multiplied by 100.
The Stanford- Binet scale became the standard American intelligence test until it was itself revised in 1937.

Goddard and Terman did not follow Binet and Simon in treating their scales as merely useful instruments for identifying children in need of remedial education.
They treated them as objective measures of genetically determined levels of intelligence, to be employed in interventionist programs of social engineering.

Goddard and Terman served on the 1914 Committee for the Heredity of Feeblemindedness, which also included Thorndike, Yerkes, Walter B. Cannon, and Alexander Graham Bell.
Committee recommended a negative eugenics program:
the sterilization of mental defectives, along with other defective classes such as criminals and the insane.

The first state law licensing the sterilization of the feebleminded was passed in Indiana in 1907, although it was eventually struck down by the state supreme court. However, other states followed the recommendations.
By the 1920’s close to 30 states had such laws and by 1930 12,000 people had been sterilized.
The Commonwealth of Virginia repealed the last sterilization law as late as 1981 (a formal apology to the victims of the law was issued 20 years later).



Goddard managed to persuade immigration officers at Ellis Island that he was able to identify the feebleminded among the increasing numbers of eastern and southern Europeans of poor stock ( in comparison to northern and western Europeans of good stock) then immigrating to the United States.
Impressed by Goddard’s ability to identify the feebleminded by sight and then have his identification objectively confirmed by their low scores on the Binet- Simon test
(although the translators who administered the test complained that they would not have been able to answer questions about the New York Giants when they first came to America).
As immigration inspectors began to make use of Goddard’s intelligence tests, they refused entry to increasing numbers of immigrants on grounds of feeblemindedness.

the new self- confidence of applied psychologists led them down a number of dangerous roads.
One alarming finding of the Army Testing Project during WWI was that around half of the army recruits tested at or below the level of moron, defined by Goddard as between the mental age of 8 and 12 ( with an IQ of between 50 and 70).
Goddard claimed that the army test results demonstrated that half the human race [is] little above the moron.


McDougall’s “Is America Safe for Democracy?” (1921) contained specific recommendations for programs of positive and negative eugenics to reverse the perceived downtrend in levels of intelligence.
Goddard’s own “Human Efficiency and Levels of Intelligence” ( 1920) expressed dark thoughts about the future of democracy and
argued that the average mental age of other races, including blacks, was much lower than the average mental age of (male) whites.
He recommended that intelligence tests should be employed to disenfranchise those of low intelligence, as well as to determine the suitability of job applicants.