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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functions of lipids
energy storage
biological membrane
signaling
classes of lipids
(all biological lipids are amphipathic)
FA
triacylglycerols
glycerophospholipids
sphingolipids
waxes
isoprene-based (w/ roids)
Fatty acids
CH3-CH2-COOH
saturated all C-C bonds are single
lauric acid (12)
myristic acid (14)
palmitic acid (16)
stearic acid (18)
arachidic acid (20)
Fatty acids
unsaturated: one or more C=C double bonds
oleic (bent)
linoleic (bent, alpha isnt)
arachidonic (bent)
cis surrounding C=C, kink
increasing membrane fluidity
Fatty acids
structural consequences of unsaturation
sat chains are rigid
unsat bend and pack less
branches: tuberculosteric acid
Sat and trans-unsat increase LDL cholesterol
and lower HDL levels
Triacylglycerols
energy source
main component of adipose
backbone of glycerol
formed from glyerol and FA
Glycerophopholipids = phosphatidic + X at the P function
P group at C3 of diaglycerol
phosphatidylcholin, ethanolamine are most common
signal transduction
Sphingolipids
18-amino alcohol (sphingosine)
ceramides are amide linkages of FA to the N of sphingosine
glycosphingolipids are ceramides with one of more sugars in beta-glycosidic linkage at the 1-OH group
Sphingolipids
(myelin, glyco, ganglio, blood)
sphingmyelin:sheath insulating axons
glyco: markers, specificity
ganglioside:impulse transmission (nerves)
blood type: by oligosacc head
Spingolipids
(niemann-picks disease)
defective myelinase that cleaves so myelin accumulates in brain, spleen, liver
Steroids
consists of three 6-membered rings and one 5-membered
cholesterol is most common
hormones:salt balance, sexual function, metabolism
Steroid Hormones
testosterone: OH, =O
estradiol: OH, OH
progesterone: =O, CH3-C=O