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25 Cards in this Set

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Heredity
The passing of characters from parents to offspring
Genetics
the branch of biology that focuses on heredity
monohybrid cross
a cross that involves one pair of contrasting traits
Ex: crossing a plant with a purple flowers with a white flowers
true breeding
all the offspring would display only one form of the character. EX: True breeding purple flowering plant will only produce plants with purple flowers in subsequent generations.
P generation
The Parental generation
The first two individuals that are crossed in a breeding experiment
F
1 Generation
The offspring from the P generation. (First Filial generation)
F
2
The offspring of the F
1
generation plants (second filial generation)
alleles
Different versions of a gene
dominant
The expressed form of the character(character that is seen)
recessive
The trait that was not expressed. (It is there but not seen)
homozygous
If the two alleles of a particular gene present in an individual are the same
heterozygous
if the two alleles of a particular gene present in an individual are different
genotype
the set of alleles that an individual has for a character
phenotype
the physical apperance of a character
Law of segregation
the two alleles for a character segregate when gametes are formed
law of independent assortment
the alleles of different genes separate independently of one another during gamete formation
Punnett square
A diagram that predicts the outcome of a genetic cross by considering all possible combinations of gametes in the cross
Test Cross
The crossing of an individual of unknow genotype with a hymozygous recessive individuale to determine the unknown genotype
Probability
the likelihood that a specific event will occur.
Pedigree
a family history that shows how a trait is inherited over serveral generations
sex-linked gene
located on the x or y chromosome Moste are carried on the X and are recessive
incomplete dominance
a phenotype that is intermediate between the two parents
Ex Red crossed with white=pink
polygenic inheritance
when several genes influence a character. Example= eye color,height,weight,hair skin color
multiple alleles
A gene with three or more alleles
EX Blood Type
codominance
Two dominant alleles are displayed at the same time.
EX Blood Types