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74 Cards in this Set

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What does food processing include?
all the operations by which raw foodstuffs are made
-Processing for preservation
-Processing for manufacture of desirable foods
What are some major causes of spoilage?
Microbial growth
Enzymatic changes
Chemical changes
What are unit operations?
broad categories of food processing operations
What are some examples of Unit Operations?
Material Handling, Washing, Cleaning, Pumping, Mixing, Drying, Evaporation, Heat Exchange, Heat Exchange, etc.
What are some Basic Processing Principles?
Moisture removal
Heat treatment
*Low temperature treatment
*Acidity control
*Nonthermal processing
*Innovative nonthermal processing
What are some common methods for moisture removal?
*Sun drying
*Drum drying
*Spray drying
*Freeze drying
Inhibition of microorganisms relies on what?
on water activity

*at least more than water content.
What are some common methods of Heat Treatment?
*Pasteurization
*Blanching
*Baking
*Canning
*Extrusion cooking
*Microwave cooking
What is sterilization?
the complete destruction of microorganisms
What is commercial sterilization?
the pathogenic and toxin-producing organisms are destroyed
What is Pasteurization?
a lighter heat treatment intended to destroy organisms of public health concern and extend shelf life
What are some common methods of Low-temperature treatment?
*Cold storage
*Freezing
What do IQF foods do?
*Reduces time products remain at dangerous temperatures

*Improves quality by assuring small ice crystals
What is acidity control?
Control of pH by the addition of acidulants
What are some common acids?
*Acetic
*Benzoic
*Lactic
*Citric
High-acid foods have a pH of what?
<4.6
What are some common methods of Nonthermal Processing?
Chemical preservatives and Packaging
What are some examples of chemical preservatives?
*Antimicrobials: Salt, sodium nitrite
*Antibrowning: Sulfur dioxide
*Antioxidants: BHA, BHT, tocopherols
What are some examples of Packaging?
*Modified atmosphere packaging
*Smart packages
What are some examples of Innovative Nonthermal Methods?
*Irradiation
*High pressure
*Light pulses
*Electric fields
What is Heat Transfer?
refers to the manner in which heat energy is transferred from a source to food particles in a container
What does Conduction involve?
heat transfer through a material due to molecular movement
What does Convection involve?
heat transfer through movement of heated fluid from hot regions to cold
Thermal processing is intended to what?
destroy pathogenic and spoilage organisms
What is essential for Preventing Food Spoilage?
Controlling biological, physical and chemical changes
What is required To cause thermal death of organisms?
specific time and temperature combinations
D values refers to what?
decimal reduction time or the time it takes to reduce bacterial numbers by 90% at a specific temperature
What is 12D concept?
the generous margin of safety to reduce 1012 organisms to one (or one can in one trillion would be positive)
Thermal Death Time (TDT) refers to what?
the percentage of organisms killed per minute at a particular temperature
How can food safety be accomplished?
by single preservation method or by applying hurdle technology
What is Hurdle Technology?
a combination of preservation methods to provide effective control
What are some examples of dairy products?
Milk, cheese, ice cream and yogurt
What are the milk processing steps?
*Clarification
*Fat adjustment
*Vitamin fortification

*Pasteurization
*Homogenization
*Cooling and filling
What is pasteurization?
A mild thermal treatment used to destroy organisms known to occur in milk and that could affect public health
What is casein? (milk)
the major milk protein (80% of the protein) and precipitates at a pH of 4.6
WHat is a whey protein?
are also in milk and can be heat coagulated but are not precipitated by acid
What occurs during cheese processing?
milk is coagulated into a curd through use of enzymes or acid
What is meat?
it's edible animal flesh and includes red meat, poultry and seafood
What are some examples of processed meat products?
bacon, frankfurters, ham, and lunch meat.
What is meat quality?
it's the tenderness, juiciness and flavor which are influenced by several factors
What are the factors that influence meat quality?
Connective tissue
Adipose tissue
Postmortem conditions
What are the common steps involved in ice cream processing?
-Blending of ingredients
-Pasteurization
-Homogenization
-Aging of the mix
-Freezing
-Packaging
-Hardening
Fat content of premium products in ice cream are what percent?
12%
What is rigor mortis?
the stiffening of muscle as a result of the final contraction as an animal dies
What is cold shortening?
a toughening that results from rapid chilling of lean carcasses before rigor mortis occurs
What is thaw rigor?
a similar defect if meat is frozen before rigor mortis occurs
What is over-run?
air is injected during freezing to make the ice cream texture lighter.
What are added to stabilize the fat in the ice cream mix?
emulsifyers
What does PSE meat stand for?
pale, soft, and exudative meat

it's a type of postmortem condition
What does DFD meat stand for?
Dark, firm, and dry meat

it's a type of postmortem condition
What does PSE meat result from?
rapid pH decline while carcass temperature is still high
What does DFD meat result from?
glycogen depletion prior to slaughter
What is reduced by PSE meat?
water holding capacity of muscle proteins
What occurs in DFD meat?
Elevated pH and water holding capacity of muscle occurs as lactic acid production is reduced
Are pigs prone to stess?
yes, because they are going to be slaughtered by andrew clarke
What are the common red meat processing steps?
-Grinding
-Mixing
-Chopping/emulsifying
-Stuffing
-Smoking/cooking
-Chilling
-Packaging
what are some preservation methods for meat?
-canning (spam)
-chemical additives
How do you go about canning low acid products (meats)?
cooking hermetically sealed containers in a retort
What are some examples of chemical additives used for meat products?
-Nitrate/nitrite
-Phosphates
-Salt/sugar/spices
-Erythorbate
What is meat curing?
The combination of salt, sugar and nitrite added to meat
What does meat curing affect?
it affects color, flavor, preservation and safety
What are some examples of meat curing?
-Dry curing
-Pickle curing
-Injection curing
Why are cold storage and freezing effective preservation methods?
they increase the shelf life of meats
Why is drying used as a meat preservation method?
used to remove moisture and lower water activity to prevent microbial growth
What does fermentation require?
the addition of desirable bacteria to convert glucose into lactic acid and lower pH below 5.3
What does smoking do?
imparts a desirable color and flavor but also preserves due to chemicals in the smoke
What is irridation?
a pasteurization method for single ingredient meat products
What are Sources used for irradiation?
-Electron beam
-Gamma radiation
Why is irridation effective?
for reducing bacterial contamination and eliminating trichina spiralis
What is comminution?
size reduction of meat particles accomplished by grinding, chopping or emulsifying
What is stuffing?
the filling of casings to provide shape and containment of meats
What is restructuring?
the forming of steaks or roasts from flaked, ground or sectioned meats
Fish have less connective tissue and more polyunsaturated fatty acids than mammals and birds. T/F
True
What are the comon steps for poultry processing?
-Slaughter
-Scalding
-Defeathering
-Feet removal
--Evisceration
-Chilling
-Packaging or further processing