Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/19

Click to flip

19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
energy-carrying biological molecule, which, when broken down, drives cellular activities.
aerobic
a metabolic process that requires oxygen.
aerobic respiration
metabolic process in which pyruvate is broken down and electron-carrier molecules are used to produce ATP through electron transport.
anaerobic process
a metabolic process that does not require oxygen.
Calvin cycle
light-independent reactions during phase two of photosynthesis in which energy is stored in organic molecules as glucose.
cellular respiration
catabolic pathway in which organic molecules are broken down to release energy for use by the cell.
energy
ability to do work; energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed.
fermentation
process in which NAD+ is regenerated, allowing cells to maintain glycolysis in the absence of oxygen.
glycolysis
anaerobic process; first stage of cellular respiration in which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate.
granum
one of the stacks of pigment-containing thylakoids in a plant's chloroplasts.
Krebs cycle
series of reactions in which pyruvate is broken down into carbon dioxide inside the mitochondria of cells; also called the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the citric acid cycle.
metabolism
all of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
NADP+
in photosynthesis, the major electron carrier involved in electron transport.
photosynthesis
two-phase anabolic pathway in which the Sun's light energy is converted to chemical energy for use by the cell.
pigment
light-absorbing colored molecule, such as chlorophyll and carotenoid, in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts.
rubisco
enzyme that converts inorganic carbon dioxide molecules into organic molecules during the final step of the Calvin cycle.
stroma
fluid-filled space outside the grana in which light-dependent reactions take place.
thermodynamics
study of the flow and transformation of energy in the universe
thylakoid
in choroplasts, one of the stacked, flattened, pigment-containing membranes in which light-dependent reactions occur