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9 Cards in this Set

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ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials, an organization that promulgates standard methods of testing the performance of building materials and components.
What are the molding processes used in manufacturing bricks? How do they differ from one another?
1. Soft mud process - pressed into rectangular molds by hand or machine. Produces bricks with smooth, dense surface known as water-struck or matte-textured.
2. dry-press process - used for clays that shrink excessively during drying. Clay mixed with a minimum of water (up to 10%) is pressed into steel molds by a machine at high pressure.
3. stiff mud process - most widely used today. Clay contains 12-15% water passed thru vacuum to remove air and extruded thru rectangular die. As clay leaves die, textures or thin mixtures of colored clays may be applied to its surface. Column of clay is pushed by the pressure of extrusion across a cutting table, where automatic cutter wires slice it into bricks.
List the functions of mortar.
Mortar serves to cushion the masonry units, giving them full baring against one another despite their surface irregularities. Mortar seals between the units to keep water and wind from penetrating it; it adheres the units to one another to bond them into a monolithic structural unit and it is important to the appearance of the finished masonry wall.
What are the ingredients of mortar? What is the function of each ingredient?
1. Portland cement - bonding agent in mortar
2. hydrated lime - adds smoothness and workability
3. inert aggregate (sand) - binds with cement
4. water - necessary for hydration?
brick size
15 7/8 - not 16"
Why are mortar joints tooled?
The joints in brickwork are tooled an hour or two after laying as the mortar begins to harden, to give a neat appearance and to compact the mortar into a profile that meets the visual and weather resistive requirements of the wall.
Which tooling profiles are suitable for a brick wall in a severe climate?
Outdoors, the vee joint and concave joint shed water and resist freeze that damage better than the others.
Bricks may be _______, _________, or
__________.
cored, hollow, or frogged bricks.
Standard brick size
No standard brick size - the closest in the U.S. is 4 inches horizontally and 8 inches vertically.