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32 Cards in this Set

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Epinephrine/adrenaline
Neurotransmitter and hormone; released from neurons of the sympathetic nervous system and from the adrenal medulla; adrenaline.
norepinephrine/actylcholine
Neurotransmitter similar to epinephrine;noradrenaline
After the release into the synaptic cleft, the neurotransmitter may be removed by:
* It may slowly diffuse away
from the synapse.
* it may be destroyed
rapidly by enzymes in the
synaptic.
* It may be taken back into
the presynaptic cell to be
used again, a process know
as Reuptake.
Dorsal Horns
1. The occipital division of
the lateral ventricle of
the brain, extending
backward into the
occipital lobe.

2. The posterior gray
column of the spinal cord
in cross section.
Ventral Horns
1. The front section of the
lateral ventricle of the
brain, extending forward
from Monro's foramen.

2. The front or ventral gray
column of the spinal
cord in cross section.
Gray Commissure
The bridge of grray matter that connects the right and left horns.
Central Canal
is the cerebrospinal fluid-filled space that runs longitudinally through the length of the entire spinal cord. It is contiguous with the ventricular system of the brain.
Posterior median sulcus
divides the right and left portions of the posterior white matter.
Anterior median fissure
A deeper groove that separates the right and left portion of the anterior white matter.
Ascending tracts
Sensory(afferent) impulses entering the spinal cord are transmitted toward the brain
descending tracts
Motor(efferent) impulses traveling from the brain.
Reflex arc
A pathway through the nervous system from stimulus to response; commonly involves a receptor, sensory neuron, central neurons, motor neuron, and effector.
Simple reflex
is a rapid, uncomplicated and automatic response involving very few neurons.
spinal reflex
a simple relfec arc that passes through the spinal cord alone and does not involve the brain
Stretch Reflex
in which a muscle is stretched and responds by contracting
Dorsal Root
is the afferent sensory root of a spinal nerve.
Dorsal Root Ganglion
is a nodule on a dorsal root that contains cell bodies of neurons in afferent spinal nerves. All of the axons in the dorsal root convey somatosensory information, bringing sensory information into the brain and spinal cord. These neurons are of the unipolar type, meaning they have only one projection. The dorsal root ganglia lie along the vertebral columna by the spine. The dorsal root ganglia develop in the embryo from neural crest cells.

is a nodule on a dorsal root that contains cell bodies of neurons in afferent spinal nerves. All of the axons in the dorsal root convey somatosensory information, bringing sensory information into the brain and spinal cord. These neurons are of the unipolar type, meaning they have only one projection. The dorsal root ganglia lie along the vertebral columna by the spine. The dorsal root ganglia develop in the embryo from neural crest cells.
Ventral Root
is the efferent motor root of a spinal nerve. At its distal end, the ventral root joins with the dorsal root to form a mixed spinal nerve.
Ganglion
is any collection of nerve cells bodies located outsie the CNS.
Plexuses
Network of vessels or nerves
Cervical Plexus
supplies motor impulses to the muscles of the neck and recieves sensory impulses from the neck and the back of the head. the phrenic nerve which activates the diaphragm, rises from this plexuses
Brachial Plexus
sends numerous brances to the shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist, and hand.
Lumbosacral Plexus
supplies nerves to the plevis and legs.
sciatic nerve
The largest branch in the plexus. It leaves the dorsal part of the pelvis, passes beneath the gluteus maximus muscle, and extends down the back of the thigh. At this beginning, it is nearly 1 inch thick but it soon branches to the thigh muscles, near the knee, it forms two subdivisions that supply the leg and foot.
Dermatome
is a region of the skin supplied by a single spinal nerve.
thoracolumbar
Of or relating to the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. These preganglionic fibers arise fromthe spinal cord s the level of the first thoractic spinal nerve down to the level of the second lumbar spinal nerve. From this part of the cord, nerve fibers extend to ganglia where they synapse with postganglionic neurons, the fibers of which extend to the glands and involuntary muscle tissue.
sympathetic Chains
two cordlike strands of ganglia that extend along either side of the spinal column fromthe lower neck to the upper abdonimal region.
Collateral ganglia
The nerves that supply the organs of the abdominal and pelvic cavities synapse.

It has 3 single ganglia:

* Celiac ganglion, which
sends fibers maninly to
the digestive organs.

* Superior mesenteric
ganglion, which sends
fibers to the large and
small intestines.

* Inferior mesenteric
ganglion, which sends
fibers to the distal large
intestine and organs of
the urinary and
reproductive system.
Adrenergic
An activity or structure that responds to epinephrine
Craniosacral
fibers arising from cell bodies in the brainstem and the lower part of teh spinal cord.
Terminal ganglia
fibers extend to autonomic ganglia that are usually located near or within the walls of the effector organs.
fight-or-flight response
is our body's primitive, automatic, inborn response that prepares the body to "fight" or "flee" from perceived attack, harm or threat to our survival.
When we experience excessive stress—whether from internal worry or external circumstance—a bodily reaction is triggered, called the "fight or flight" response. Originally discovered by the great Harvard physiologist Walter Cannon, this response is hard-wired into our brains and represents a genetic wisdom designed to protect us from bodily harm. This response actually corresponds to an area of our brain called the hypothalamus, which—when stimulated—initiates a sequence of nerve cell firing and chemical release that prepares our body for running or fighting.
Symptoms:
* Increase int he rate and
force of heart
contractions.
* Increase in blood pressure
due partly to constriction
of small arteries in the
skin and the internal
organs.
* Dilation of blood vessels
to skeletal muscles,
bringing more blood to
these tissue.
* Dilation of the bronchial
tubes to allow more oxygen
to enter.
* Stimulation of the central
portion of the adrenal
gland.