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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Somatic Nervous System
Control: Voluntary
Effectors: Skeletal Muscle
Subdivisions: None
Autonomic Nervous system
Control: Involuntary
Effectors: Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.

It is also called the viceral nervous system because it controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscles, and gland
Receptor
End of a dendrite or specialized cell that responds to a stimulus
Sensory Neuron
Transmits a nerve impulse toward the CNS
Center Nervous System
Coordinated sensory impulses and organizes a response; usually requires interneurons
Motor Neuron
Carries impulses away from the CNS toward the effector, a muscle, or a gland
Effector
A muscle or gland outside the CNS that carries out a response.
Origin of fibers
Sympathetic Nervous System:

Thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord; thoracolumbar.

Parasympathetic Nervous System:

Brain stem and sacral regions of the spinal Cord; craniosacral.
Location of ganglia
Sympathetic Nervous System:

Sympathetic chains and three single collateral ganglia (celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric)

Parasympathetic Nervous System:

Terminal ganglia in or near the effector organ.
Neurotransmitter Effects
Sympathetic Nervous System:

Adrenaline and noradrenaline; adrenergic Response to stress; fight-or-flight response.

Parasympathetic Nervous System:

Reverses fight-or-flight (stress) response; stimulates some activities.
Pupils of eye
Sympathetic System:

Dilation

Parasympatetic System:

Constriction
Sweat glands
Sympathetic System:

Stimiulation

Parasympatetic System:

None
Digestive glands
Sympathetic System:

Inhibition

Parasympatetic System:

Stimulation
Heart
Sympathetic System:

Increased rate and strength of beat.

Parasympatetic System:

Decreased rate of beat
Bronchi of lungs
Sympathetic System:

Dilation

Parasympatetic System:

Constriction
Muscles of digestive system
Sympathetic System:

Decreased contraction (pristalsis)

Parasympatetic System:

Increade contraction
Kidneys
Sympathetic System:

Decreased activity

Parasympatetic System:

None
Urinary Bladder
Sympathetic System:

Relaxtion

Parasympatetic System:

Contraction and emptying
Liver
Sympathetic System:

Increased releast of glucose

Parasympatetic System:

None
Penis
Sympathetic System:

Ejaculation

Parasympatetic System:

Erection
Adrenal medulla
Sympathetic System:

Stimulation

Parasympatetic System:

None
Skeletal muscles
Sympathetic System:

Dilation

Parasympatetic System:

Constiction
Skin
Sympathetic System:

Constiction

Parasympatetic System:

None
Respiratory system
Sympathetic System:

Dilation

Parasympatetic System:

Constriction
Digestive Organs
Sympathetic System:

Contriction

Parasympatetic System:

Dilation
Muscles of digestive system
Sympathetic System:

Decreased contraction (pristalsis)

Parasympatetic System:

Increade contraction
Kidneys
Sympathetic System:

Decreased activity

Parasympatetic System:

None
Urinary Bladder
Sympathetic System:

Relaxtion

Parasympatetic System:

Contraction and emptying
Liver
Sympathetic System:

Increased releast of glucose

Parasympatetic System:

None
Penis
Sympathetic System:

Ejaculation

Parasympatetic System:

Erection
Adrenal medulla
Sympathetic System:

Stimulation

Parasympatetic System:

None
Skeletal muscles
Sympathetic System:

Dilation

Parasympatetic System:

Constiction
Skin
Sympathetic System:

Constiction

Parasympatetic System:

None
Respiratory system
Sympathetic System:

Dilation

Parasympatetic System:

Constriction
Digestive Organs
Sympathetic System:

Contriction

Parasympatetic System:

Dilation
Somatic Nervous System
Control: Voluntary
Effectors: Skeletal Muscle
Subdivisions: None
Autonomic Nervous system
Control: Involuntary
Effectors: Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
Receptor
End of a dendrite or specialized cell that responds to a stimulus
Sensory Neuron
Transmits a nerve impulse toward the CNS
Center Nervous System
Coordinated sensory impulses and organizes a response; usually requires interneurons
Motor Neuron
Carries impulses away from the CNS toward the effector, a muscle, or a gland
Effector
A muscle or gland outside the CNS that carries out a response.
Origin of fibers
Sympathetic Nervous System:

Thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord; thoracolumbar.

Parasympathetic Nervous System:

Brain stem and sacral regions of the spinal Cord; craniosacral.
Location of ganglia
Sympathetic Nervous System:

Sympathetic chains and three single collateral ganglia (celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric)

Parasympathetic Nervous System:

Terminal ganglia in or near the effector organ.
Neurotransmitter Effects
Sympathetic Nervous System:

Adrenaline and noradrenaline; adrenergic Response to stress; fight-or-flight response.

Parasympathetic Nervous System:

Reverses fight-or-flight (stress) response; stimulates some activities.
Pupils of eye
Sympathetic System:

Dilation

Parasympatetic System:

Constriction
Sweat glands
Sympathetic System:

Stimiulation

Parasympatetic System:

None
Digestive glands
Sympathetic System:

Inhibition

Parasympatetic System:

Stimulation
Heart
Sympathetic System:

Increased rate and strength of beat.

Parasympatetic System:

Decreased rate of beat
Bronchi of lungs
Sympathetic System:

Dilation

Parasympatetic System:

Constriction
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Cranioscral division of the autonomic nervous system; generally reverses the fight-or-flight (stress) response.

conserves energy as it slows the heart rate, increases intestinal and gland activity, and relaxes sphincter muscles in the gastrointestinal tract.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system; stimulates a fight-or-flight (stress)response


Messages travel through the SNS in a bidirectional flow. Efferent messages can trigger changes in different parts of the body simultaneously. For example, the sympathetic nervous system can accelerate heart rate; widen bronchial passages; decrease motility (movement) of the large intestine; constrict blood vessels; increase peristalsis in the esophagus; cause pupil dilation, piloerection (goose bumps) and perspiration (sweating); and raise blood pressure. Afferent messages carry sensations such as heat, cold, or pain.
Peripheral nervous system
It made up of all the nerves outsige the CNS.
Cranial Nerves
carry impulses to and from the brain
Spinal Nerves
carry impulses to and from the spinal Cord
effector
Any tissue or organ that carries out a command from th nervous systems.
Neurons
cells of the nervous system; highly specialized cells. The cell body contains the nulceus and othr organelles typically found in cells. The distingushing feature of the neruons are long, threadlike fibers that extend out from the cell body and carry impulses across he cell. There are two kinds of fibers: dendrites and axons.
Dendrites
are neuron fibers that conduct impulses to the cell body. Most of these have a highly branched, treelike apperance. It functions as receptors in the nervous system. That is they reive the stimulu that begin a neural pathway.
Axons
are neuron fibers that conduct impulses away from the cell body. These impulses may be delicered to antoher neruon, to a muscle or to a gland. An axon is a single fiber, which may be quite long and which branches at its end
Myelin
insulates and protect the fiber
Schwann Cells
Cell in the nervous system that produces the mylein sheath around peripheral axons. It wraps around the axon like a jelly roll.
Neurilemma
Thin sheath tht covers certain peripheral axons; aids in regeneratio of the axon. This covering is a part of the mechanism by which some peripheral nerves repair themselves when injured
White Matter
nervous tissue composed of mylinated fibers. It is found in the brain, spinal cord, and the nerve trunks in all parts of the body.
Gray Matter
Nervous tissue composed of unmyelinated fibers and cell bodies.
Sensory neurons/afferent neuron
carrying toward a given point, such as a sensory neuron that carries nerve impulses toward the central nervous system. Neuron that conduct impulses to the spinal cord and brain
motor neurons/efferent neurons
Describing structures or activities involved in transmitting impulses away from the central nervous system.
Nerve
Bundle of neuron fibers outside the central nervous system
Tract
Bundle of neuron fibers within the cenral nervous system
Mixed nerves
Nerves containing both sensory and motor fibers. Impulses may be traveling in two directions toward or away form the CNS, but each individual fiber in the nerve is carrying impulses in one direction only.
Neuroglia
Supporting and protective cells of the central nervous system;glial cells

1. The have special
functions:
2. Protect nervous tissue
3. Support nervous tissue
and bind it to other
structures.
4. Aid in repair of cells
5. Act as phagocytes to
remove pathogens and
impurities.
6. Regulate the composition
of fluids areound and
between cells.
Potential
an electical charge as, as on the neuron plasma membrane.
Polarized
At rest, the inside of the membrane is negative as compared with the outside.
Nerve Impulse
Electrical charge that spreads along the membrane of a neuron; action potential
Action Potential
Sudden change in the electrical charge on a cell membrane which then spreads along the membrane.

The resting state. in addition to an electrical difference on the two sides of the plasma membrane at rest, there is also a slight difference in the concentration of ions on either side. At rest sodium ions(Na+) are a little more concentrated at the outside of the membrane. At the same time, postassioum ions (K+) re a little more concentrated at the inside of the membrane.
Depolarization
A sudden reversal of the charge on a cell membrane.

a stimulus of adequate force, such as electrical, chemical, or mechanical energy, causes specific cahnnels inthe membrane to open and allow Na+ ions to flow into the cell. Remember that substances blow by diffusion from an area where they are in higher concentration to an area where they in lower concentration. As these positive ions enter, they raise the charge on the inside of the membrane.
Repolarization
A sudden return to the original charge on a cell membrane following depolarization.

In the next step of the action potential, K+ channels open to allow K+ to leave the cell. As the electrical charge returns to its resting value. At the same time that the membrane is repolarizing, the cell uses active transport to move Na+ and K+ back to their original concentrations on either side of the membranse so that the membrane can be stimulated again. This activity is described as the Na+/K+ pump.
Role of Myelin in conduction
When a myelin is present on an axon, hoever, it insulates the fiber against the spread of current. This would appear to slow or stop conduction along these fiber but in fact the myelin sheth speeds conduction along these fibers, but in fact the reason is that the action potential must jump like a spark from node to node along the shealth and this type of conduction is actually faster than continous conduction
Synapse
junction between two neurons or between a neuron and an effector