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25 Cards in this Set

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what is reaction time and an example of it?
Is the amount of elasped time between the presentation of a pysical stimulus and an overt reaction to that stimulus.

Ex. Susan and several of her friends are standing in her office looking for her keys. The reaction time is the timeit takes Susan to look up and get ready to catch the keys after hearing Dave call out.
Explain the reaction time of complexity
One important reaction is the complexity of the decision. The larger the number of possible actions that might be carried out in the response to a set of stimuli, the longer the reaction time.
ex. The tennis player who knows that her opponant usually serves to a particular spot on the court will have a simple decision to make when the serve is completed and will react rapidly. But if she faces an opponant whose serve is less predictable, her reaction will be slower, because a more complex decision about which way to move is now required.
Explain the reaction time of stimulus response compatibility?
If the relationship between a set of stimuli and possible responses is natural or compatible, reaction time will be fast. If not reaction time will be slower.
Explain the reaction time of expectancy?
People respond faster to stimuli that they expect to occur and more slowly to stimuli that surprise them. So your reaction time will be shorter when braking for a traffic light that you know might turn red than when dodging a ball thrown at you unexpectedly.
Explain the reaction time of speed-expectancy trade off?
It you try to respon quickly errors increase, if you try for an error-free performance, reaction time increases.
ex. Sprinters who try too hard to anticipate the starting gun may have especially quick starts but may also have especially freqeunt false starts that disqualify them.
What are cognitive maps and what is an example of it?
Mental representations of familiar parts of your world.

ex. Lashon's friend asks,"How do you get to the mall from here" to answer the question , Lashon pictures the roads and crossroads between their location and the mall and is able to describe the route for his friend to travel.
what are mental models and images? ex.
models are clusters of propositions that represent peoples understanding of how things work.
ex. There is a toy that is a board with different types of latches, fasteners, and buttons on it. As children play with it, they form a mental model of how these things work. Then when they see a button, perhaps a doorbell, they will have an understanding of how it works.
Images are visual pictures represented in thought.
What is a formal concept and an ex.?
are concepts that are clearly defined by a set of rules or properties. Each member of the concept meets all the rules or has all of the defining properties, and no non member does.

ex. A square is a formal concept. All members of the concept are shapes with four equal sides and four right angle corners. Nothing that is not a square share these properties.

What is a natural concept and an ex.?
defined by a general set of features, not all of which must be present for an object to be considered a member of the concept.

Ex. The concept of vegetable is a natural concept. There are no rules or list of features that describe every single vegetable. Mnay vegetables are difficult to recognize as such because this concept is so fuzzy. Toamtoes are not vegetables, but most people think thy are. Rhubarb is a vegetable, but most people think it is not.
What is a prototype and an example?
Is the best example of a natural concept that contains all or most of its characteristic features
ex. Try this trick on your friends. Have them sit down with a pencil or paper. Tell them to write down all the numbers that you will say and the answers to three questions that you will ask. Recite about fifteen numbers of at least three digits each, and then ask your friends to write down the name of a tool, a color, and a flower. About 60 to 80% of them will write down hammer, red and rose because these are common protoypes of the concpts tool, color, and flower, prototypes come to mind most easily when people try to think of a concept.
What are schemas and an example of it?
They are generalizations about categories of objects, events and people.
ex. Dana's schema for books is that they are a bound stack of paper with stories or other information written on the page. When her fifth grade teacher suggest that each student read a book on the computer, Dana is confused until she sees that the same information could be presented on a computer screen. Dana has now revised her chema bfor books to include those presented through electronic media.
What are scripts and what is an example of it?
They are mental representations of familiar sequences, usually involving activity.

ex. As a college student, you have a script of how events should transpire in the classroom, students enter the classroom, sit in seats facing the professor, and take out their notebooks. The professor lectures while students take notes, until the bell rings and they all leave.
What are propositions and an example?
Is a mental representation that expresses a relationship between concepts.It can be true or false.
What are attributes that go along with utility?
The process of explaing the causes of peoples behavior including one's own.
In biases and flaws in decision making what is gambler's fallacy and an example of it?
It's when people believe that events in a random process will correct themselves. This is false

ex. If you flip a coin and it comes up heads ten times in a row, the chance that it will come up heads on the eleventh try is still 50 percent. Some gamblers however will continue feeding a slot machine that hasn't paid off much for hours, assuming they will get more money. This assumption may be partly responsible for the resistance to extinction of intermittenly reinforced behaviors.
What is loss aversion and an example of it?
It's when people feel worse about losing a certain amount than they feel good about gaining the same amount.

ex. You just lost 50 dollars, the you found 50 dollars on the street, you feel worse about losing the 50 that you had even thgh you found 50 dollars.
What is phoneme and an example of it?
They are the smallest units of sound that affect the meaning of speech.

ex. Phonemes are sounds that make a difference in th meaning of the word. By changing the beginning phonme, the meanings of the following words are changed: Bin, Thin, Win
note: phono means sound.
What is Morpheme and an example of it?
Are the smallest units of knowledge that have meaning.

ex. Any prefix or suffix has meaning. The suffix "s" means plural, as in words bats, or flowers. The prefix un means not, ans in unhappy, or unrest. S AND UN are morphemes for the words bat, flower,, happy, and rest.
What is syntax and an example of it?
Is the set of rules that dictates how words are combined to make phrases and sentences.
ex. Fatal accidents deter careful drivers.
Snows sudden floods melting cause.
The first sentence makes sense the second sentence violates english syntax. but if the sentence is reworded it would say "Melting snows cause sudden floods." correct syntex.

syn means together. Syntax is the set of rules that determines the order of words when they are put together.
What is semantics and an example of it?
the set of rules that governs the meaning of words and sentences. It sounds right but does not make any sense.

ex. "Wild lamps fiddle with precision" or " Rapid bouquets deter sudden neighbors" has syntax, but incorrect semantics.
What is surface structure and an example of it?
Is a set of rules that governs the meaning of words and sentences.
What is deep structure and an example of surface and deep structure.?
A sentence is an abstract representation of the relationships expressed in a sentence or, in other words its various meanings.

ex. The eating of the animal was grotesque. The surface structure of the sentence is the order of the words. The deep structure contains at lest two meanings: The way the animal is eating could be grotesque, and the way people are eating an animal could be grotesque.
What are babbelings and an example of them?
They re the first sounds infants make that resemble speech. Babbelings begin at about four months of age.

ex. while Patrick plays, he say's ba-ba-ba.
what is the one word stage ang and an example of it?
That period when children use one word to cover a number of objects and frquently make up new words. This stage last about six months.

ex. Laura says "ba" to stand for bottle, ball, or anything else that starts with a "b". Amy always asks for milk even if she wants something else to drink, such as water of juice.
What is the telegraphic speech?
By the age of two, most youngsters can use fifty to well over one hundred words. They also start using two-word combinations to form efficient little sentences. These two word sentences are called telegraphic because they are brief and to the point, leaving out everything that is not absolutely essential. So if she wants her mothe to give her a book, a twenty month year old might say "give book," then "Mommy give" THEN IF THAT DOESN'T WORK , "Mommy Book."