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26 Cards in this Set

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Name six members of your biological security system.
The six members of your biologic security system discussed in this lesson are skin, digestive system, micro cilia, liver, nervous system, immune system.

Describe the function of micro cilia found in the respiratory system
Micro cilia of the respiratory system function as a conveyor belt to remove tiny mucus and trapped foreign material breathed in with the air.
Name the three major cellular components of circulating blood.
The three major cellular components of the blood are white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. White blood cells are major players of your immune system; red blood cells transport gasses such as oxygen and carbon dioxide; and platelets are involved in coagulation of your blood.
What is the function of lymphocytes?
Lymphocytes recognize antigens and orchestrate production of antibodies.
Name and explain the three distinguishing characteristics of your immune system.
Your immune system's three distinguishing characteristics are:

a. Memory of previous encounters with pathogens
b. Ability to recognize minute differences in pathogens
c. Ability to expand an appropriate subset of lymphocytes in response to the invading pathogens

What is the advantage of a secondary response of the immune system over a primary response?
A secondary response of the immune system is faster and the level of antibody production is higher, often resulting in control or destruction of the invading pathogen before illness is experienced.
Name eleven common immunizations used in the United States.
Eleven common immunizations used in the U.S. are chickenpox, rubella, rubeola, hemophilus influenza, mumps, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, polio, pneumococcus, and pertussis (whooping cough).
# What is a vaccine?
A vaccine is antigenic material used to simulate a primary response against a pathogen without causing illness.
# List the three ways the term resistance is used relative to health.
The term resistance is used to describe

a. A condition of immunity
b. A condition of general health
c. A condition of susceptibility of a pathogen to an antibiotic
If you are immune to a pathogen you are said to have resistance to the pathogen.
If you have good general health, and if your total biological security system is functioning well, you are said to have good resistance.
If a pathogen is not destroyed or controlled by an antibiotic, it is said to be resistant to the antibiotic.
Name the four ORs of inflammation
Rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), and dolor (pain) are the four characteristics of inflammation.
By what means is the common cold virus most frequently transferred from one person to another?
The common cold virus and most other contagious viruses are transferred from one person to another through poor hygiene, especially through contaminated hands. Washing your hands remains one of the most effective means of reducing the spreading of pathogens.
What does itis mean?
How does "honeymoon cystitis" represent a normal function of the immune system?
The immune system needs to meet the invading pathogen and gain memory of the pathogen identity. Next, the immune system must develop a subset of white blood cells that can rapidly expand their ability to produce antibodies against the invader. Until these processes have been accomplished, honeymoon cystitis can occur in women who have become sexually active.
Why are the two diseases malaria and rheumatic fever considered to be examples of failure of the biological security system?
Malaria is a disease caused by the introduction of a protozoan through the skin by a mosquito. The protozoan causes disease because the immune system does not control or destroy the protozoa.

Rheumatic fever is a disease caused by the immune system producing substances in response to exposure to certain streptococcal bacteria. These substances attack tissue of the body resulting in inflammation of the joints, heart, and other connective tissues
Name three other diseases considered to represent failure of the immune system to function properly.
Three other diseases considered to represent failure of the immune system are scleroderma, lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. These diseases occur when the immune system causes inflammatory processes in tissues of your own body, thus they are known as autoimmune diseases.
What is the difference between the common flu and influenza?
The common "flu" is a generic term to communicate "I feel bad" (such as when I have an intestinal annoyance with pain and diarrhea), or it is used to communicate "I feel bad" (when I have aches and pains of a viral infection of the respiratory system). On the other hand, influenza is a specific illness caused by a specific virus - the influenza virus. The disease, influenza, is damaging to the respiratory system and very unpleasant.
How often is reasonable to seek an influenza immunization?
The influenza virus changes its antigenic identity regularly; therefore, it is reasonable to seek an influenza immunization every year, especially if you are living in a densely packed environment such as a university, where contagious diseases are easily spread from person to person.
Explain how an allergy attack represents your immune system in action.
An allergy attack occurs when the immune system has been stimulated to respond to a nonpathogenic material as if it were pathogenic. By release of cellular materials, the body tissues are inflamed.
Name ten common types of allergens.
Ten common allergens are rug mite feces, animal dander, molds, scents in perfumes, smoke, insect materials in stinging insects, pollens, drugs, foods, and chemicals.
Describe the appearance of a halo nevus.
A halo nevus looks like a common mole of the skin with a surrounding area of pale or white skin--a mole with a halo.
How does a halo nevus represent your immune system in action?
For reasons not known to us, the immune system attacks the pigmented cells in and around the mole resulting in the gradual destruction of the mole and surrounding pigmented tissue. This is a visible example of your immune system in action.
Why is the concept "safe sex" considered to be a false concept?
Any person infected with a sexually transmitted disease is considered a potential source of infection for any sexual partner. The use of condoms or alternative sexual practices reduces the risk of transmission of STDs but is not 100 percent effective in preventing transmission. The only true safe sex is abstinence until in a relationship with a partner committed to a monogamous relationship and who is known to be free of an STD.
What is PID?
PID stands for pelvic inflammatory disease. It is an inflammation of the fallopian tubes due to the gonorrhea or chlamydia bacteria. PID often results in sterility.
Antibiotics are often successful in treating which the following diseases (only one answer is correct)?

Herpes and gonorrhea
Gonorrhea and syphilis
Syphilis and HPV
Gonorrhea and syphilis
What does the acronym AIDS stand for?
AIDS is derived from the first letter of the words Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
What is a syndrome?
A syndrome is a group of symptoms and signs that together are characteristic of a specific disorder or disease. For example, AIDS is a group of symptoms and signs characteristic of an immune disorder due to HIV infection.