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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
biological rhythms
periodic physiological fluctuations
circadian rhythms
the biological clock; regular bodily rhytms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
REM sleep
rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscules are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active
alpha waves
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
periodic natural, reversible loss of consciousness-as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external stimulus
delta waves
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
recurring problmes in faling or staying asleep
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, oftenat inopportune times
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleeo and repeated momentary awakenings
night terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousla and an apperance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, amd are seldom remembered
a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it
manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content)
latent content
according to Freud, the underlying meassage pf a dream (as distinct from its manifest content). Freud believed that a dream's latent contentfunctions as a safety valve
REM rebound
the tendancy for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivtion (created by reoeated awakenings during REM sleep)
a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certian perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
posthypnotic suggestion
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
a split in consciouness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
psychoactive drug
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
physical dependence
a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawl symptoms when the drug is discontinued
psychological dependance
a physiological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
complusive drug craving and use
drugs (such as alcholo, barbiturates, and opiaes) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but imparing memory and judgment
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up bodily funcitons
drugs that stimulate nerual activity, causing speeded-up body functions and assoicated energy and mood changes
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and assoicated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
ecstasy (MDMA)
a synthetic stimulat and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood cognition
psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory imput
a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid
the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
near-death expierence
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact
the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing