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49 Cards in this Set

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bedding plane, p 236
a nearly flat surface separating two beds of sedimentary rock. Each bedding plane marks the end of one cycle of deposition and the beginning of another cycle with different characteristics.
beds, p 236
see "strata"
biochemical, p 220
a type of chemical sediment forming when material dissolved in water is precipitated by water-dwelling organisms. Shells are common examples.
cementation, p 213
one of the ways that sedimentary rocks are lithified. Material precipitating from water percolating through the sediment fills up open spaces and glues the sediment pieces into a solid mass.
chemical sedimentary rock, p 214
sedimentary rock made up of material precipitated from water because of inorganic or organic processes
clastic texture, p 228
A sedimentary rock texture consisting of broken fragments of preexisiting rock.
compaction, p 213
a type of lithification where the weight of overlying material compresses underlying buried sediments. Compaction is most easily recognized in fine-grained sedimentary rocks such as shale.
cross-bedding, p 235
a principle of relative dating or rock units. A rock or fault is younger than any rock or fault through which it cuts. The older unit had to be there first in order to be changed (intruded into, faulted).
crystalline texture, p 228
same as "nonclastic texture"
detridal sedimentary rock, p 214
rocks forming from accumulated materials originating and transported as solid particles. The particles can come from mechanical weathering, or chemical weathering, or both.
diagenesis, p 212
the general term for changes taking place after sediments are deposited. These changes can be chemical, physical, or biological in origin. The changes can take place during lithification, or after lithification, or both.
environment of deposition, p 228
a geographic setting where sediment accumulates. Each site offers a unique combination of geologic processes and environmental conditons.
evaporite deposit, p 223
a deposit of chemical sedimentary rock formed as material is deposited from solution by the evaporation of water.
facies, p 235
a section of a rock unit that has a unique set of characteristics distinguishing it from other parts of the same unit
fissibility, p 216
the property of splitting easily into layers along closely spaced, parallel surfaces, such as bedding planes in shale.
fossil, p 23
the remains or traces of organisms preserved from the geologic past
graded bed, p 237
a layer of sediment that has larger particles on the top and smaller particles on the bottom. Graded beds change gradually in grain size from top to bottom.
lithification, p 213
The process, generally cementation, or compaction (or both) converting sediments to solid rock.
mud crack, p 238
a feature in some sedimentary rocks that forms when wet mud dries out, shrinks, and cracks
nonclastic texture, p 228
a term for the texture of sedimentary rocks in which the minerals form a pattern of interlocking crystals.
ripple mark, p 237
small waves of sand that develop on the surface of a sediment layer by the action of moving air or water.
salt flat, p 224
a white crust on the ground produced when water evaporates and leaves its dissolved materials behind.
sediment, p 212
unconsolidated particles created by the weatering and erosion of rock, by chemical precipitation from solution in water, or from the secretions of organisms. Sediments are transported by water, wind, or glaciers.
sedimentary environment, p 228
same as "environment of deposition"
sorting, p 216
the degree of similarity in particle size in sediment or sedimentary rock
strata, p 236
parallel layers of sedimentary rock
Shale
fissile sedimentary rock composed of layers of claylike, fine-grained sediments
Sandstone
sedimentary rock consisting of sand held together by cement such as quartz or calcite
conglomerate
composite sedimentary rock made up of rounded particles of varying size
sedimentary breccia
a sedimentary rock consisting of sharp angular fragments embedded in clay or sand
precipitation
process of forming a chemical precipitate
organic
carbon-based compound
inorganic
compound not containing carbon
Coquina
soft porous limestone, composed essentially of fragments of shells and coral,
chalk
soft compact calcite, CaCO3, with varying amounts of silica, quartz, feldspar, or other mineral impurities, generally gray-white or yellow-white and derived chiefly from fossil seashells
limestone
common sedimentary rock consisting mostly of calcium carbonate (calcite), CaCO3, used as a building stone and in the manufacture of lime, carbon dioxide, and cement.
dolostone
carbonate rock made up predominately of the mineral dolomite, CaMg(C03)2
chert
variety of silica containing microcrystalline quartz siliceous rock occurring as inclusions within limestone.
evaporite
sedimentary deposit resulting from the evaporation of seawater
coal
carbonized vegetable matter deposited in the Carboniferous period
jasper
opaque form of quartz; red or yellow or brown or dark green in color; used for ornamentation or as a gemstone
agate
an impure form of milky or gray quartz used as a gemstone and for making mortars and pestles
flint
very hard, fine-grained, opaque quartz that sparks when struck with steel
Peat
partially carbonized vegetable matter saturated with water; can be used as a fuel when dried
Lignite
intermediate soft, brownish-black coal in which the alteration of vegetable matter has proceeded further than in peat but not as far as in bituminous coal. Also called brown coal.
bituminous coal
rich in tarry hydrocarbons; burns readily with a smoky yellow flame
anthracite coal
hard natural coal that burns slowly and gives intense heat
facies
rock or stratified body distinguished from others by its appearance or composition.
coprolite
fossilized excrement