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60 Cards in this Set

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algae
-simplest plant
-produces 90% of air
why must algae live in the water?
because it lacks roots
green algae
food is stored as starch
golden algae
-food is stored as oil
-has a "skeleton" made of silica
dinolagellates or "red tide"
-contains flagella to swim
-produces toxin that poisons fish
brown and red or "seaweed"
multicellular
moss
simple land plant that lacks roots
rhizoids
-extensions of single cells that increase water absorption
-no tubes to transport water to other cells
tracteophytes
land palnts with tubes to transport water
ferns
-form fronds (leaves)
-form spores instead of seeds
gymnosperms
-embryo inside the seed is protected and has food
Why do plants with gymnosperms not spread very far?
because the seeds are not contained in fruit, the seeds are exposed in the cone, thus they are not very good at reproduction
angiosperms
flowering plants
monocot
1 seed leaf
dicot
2 seed leaf
name the parts of a plant and their purpose
roots- absorb water, anchor plants
stems-transport
leaves-photosynthesis
cortex
stores food, contains phlowm tubes
pericycle tubes
promotes gorownt to the side
capilliary action
water "sticks to the sides of the tube" (adhesion) and the water molecules stick to each other (cohesion)
osmosis
causes root pressure and water rises 2-3 feet
transpiration pull
water evaporates off the leaf surface, cohesion pulls the next water molecule, which pulls the next water molecule, etc.
plant hormones
chemicals that influence cell activities
auxins
cause growth of cells in response to the stimulus
stimulus
anything in the plant's enviornment that changes
tropism
movement of a plant toward or away from a stimulus
photo-
light
gravi-
or
geo-
gravity
thigmo-
touch
apical dominance
apex of a stem grows straight up and prevents lateral growth
cytokinins
-cause cell divisions, encourage lateral growth
-cause dormant seeds to sprout
gibberellins
cause very rapid stem and fruit growth
ethylene gas
causes fruit to ripen
Why are plants green?
because the color green is the only color not absorbed by a plant and thus reflected
what does photosynthesis do?
use light to put together and make food from water and carbon dioxide
What is the chemical formula/summary of photosynthesis?
6CO2+12H20 -(LIGHT)-> C6H1206+6O2+6H2O
grana
membranes of chloroplast that allow light reactions to occur
stroma
spaces in chloroplasts that allow the dark reactions to occur
xylem
the tissue that conducts water and minerals from the roots upward through the plant, helps to support the plant
phleom
transports products of photosynthesis
root hairs
tiny projections that cover the epedermis of a root and penetrate soil particles and make an area for water to enter the plant
cortex
a spongy laer of ground tissue
vascular cylinder
a central region containing the phloem and xylem that is enclosed by the endodermis
root cap
protects the root as it pushes down into the ground
Endodermis
layer of cells that surround the xylem, last checkpoint for water and minerals (screen for apoplastic route)
vascular bundles
(vein) holds xylem and phloem
pith
parenchyma cells inside a ring of vascular tissue
primary growth
growth that increases the length or height of a plant at its tips
What is primary growth produced by?
cell divisions in the apical meristem
apical meristem
a group of undifferentiated cells that divide to produce increased length of stems and roots
cork
old nonfunctioning phloem that protects the tree
cork cambium
protective layer of cork
phleom
transports sugars produced by photosynthesis
vascular cambium
produces new xylem and phleom (increases the width of a stem)
xylem
transports water and wood (sap)
middle of tree
contains old nonfunctioning xylem that helps support the tree
stomata
pore-like openings in the underside of a leaf that allows CO2 and O to diffuse in and out of the leaf
mesophyll
ground tissue packed with chloroplasts and carry out most photosynthetic activity of most plants
palisade mesophyll
absorbs the light that enters a plant
spongy mesophyll
tissue with many air spaces that allow carbon dioxide and oxygen in and out of the leaf
guard cells
specialized cells in the epidermis that control the opening and closing of stomata by responding to changes in water pressure