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38 Cards in this Set

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resolving power
measure of clarity of image
light microscope
optical instrument with lenses that refract visible light to magnify images
electron microscope
focuses beam of electrons through speciman or surface of speciman
TEM vs. SEM
TEM: internal ultrastucture of cells
SEM: detailed study of surface of speciman
cell frationation
taking cells apart, separating major organelles so functions can be studied
ultracentrifuge
most powerful machine for spinning test tubes
eukaryotic cell
cell with membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles
prokaryotic cell
cell lacking membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles
nucleoid
dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell
cytoplasm
interior of prokaryotic cell
plasma membrane
at boundary of every cell; selective barrier allowing sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service cell
nucleus
contains most of genes in eukaryotic cell
nuclear lamina
lining nuclear envelope; netlike array of protein filaments that maintain shape of nucleus
chromatin
in nucleus; fibrous material that DNA and proteins are organized into
chromosomes
threadlike, gene-carrying structure in nucleus; each consists of 1 very long DNA molecule and associated proteins
nucleolus
specialized structure in nucleus; formed from various chromosomes and active in synthesis of ribosomes
ribosomes
particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein; are organelles that carry out protein synthesis
free ribosomes vs. bound ribosomes
free: suspended in cytosol
bound: attached to outside of endoplasmic reticulum, or nuclear envelope
endomembrane system
collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell; related through direct physical contact or by transfer of membranous vesicles
endoplasmic reticulum
membranous labyrinth; consists of network of membranous tubules and sacs called cisternae
transport vesicles
tiny membranous sac in cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by cell
smooth vs. rough ER
smooth: portion of ER free of ribosomes
rough: portion of ER studded with ribosomes
Golgi apparatus
center of manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, and shipping; products of ER are modified and stored and then sent out
lysosomes
membrane-bounded sac of hydrolytic enzymes that cells use to digest macromolecules; also hydrolyze proteins, polysaccharides, fats, and nucleic acids
phagocytosis
type of endocytosis involving large, particulate substances; amoebas and other protists eat by engulfing smaller organisms or other food particles
vacuole
membrane-enclosed sac taking up most of interior of mature plant cell and containg a variety of subtances important in plant reproduction, growth and development
mitochondria
sites of cellular respiration, catabolic process that generates ATP by extracting evergy from sugars, fats, and other fuels with help of oxygen
plastids
one of a family of closely related plant organelles; ex.: chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and leucoplasts
cristae
infoldings of inner membrane of mitochondria
mitochondrial matrix
2nd compartment of mitochondrion; enclosed by inner membrane; contains many different enzymes, mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes
thylakoids
flattened membrane sac inside chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy
granum
stacked portion of thylakoid membrane in chloroplast; funtion in light reactions of photosynthesis
stroma
fluid of chloroplast surrouding the thylakoid membrane; involved in synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water
peroxisome
specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a single membrane; contain enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing hydrogen peroxide as by-product, organelle name
cytoskeleton
network of fibers extending throughout cytoplasm; organizing structures and activites of cell
microtubule
thickest of 3 types of fibers making up cytoskeleton
microfilaments
thinnest of 3 types of fibers making up cytoskeleton
intermediate filaments
fibers with diameters in middle range of 3 types of fibers making up cytoskeleton