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154 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
upper right and left chambers of the heart
membrane living the cavities of the heart
membrane forming the outer layer of the heart
Interatrial Septum
Partition between right and left atrium
Interventricular Septum
Partition between right and left ventricle
Heart Muscle
Protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fluid between.
Parietal pericardium
outer layer
Pericardial cavity
fliud filled cavity between the pericardial layers
Visceral pericardium
Layer closest to the heart
Lower right and left chambers of the heart
Heart Valves
Structures within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate the one way flow of blood
aortic valve
heart valvue between the left ventricle and the aorta
miral or bicuspid valve
heart valve between the left atrium and left ventricle
pulmonanary semilunar valve
heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery
tricuspid valve
valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
valves of the veins
valves located at intervals within the lining of veins, especially in the legs, which constrict with muscle action to move the blood returning to the heart
vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles
large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle
small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
systemic circulation
circulation of blood throughout the body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissue
coronary circulation
circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue
pulmonary circulation
circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
to expand; period in the cardiac cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the atria
to contract; period in the cardiac cycle when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and pulmonary artery
normal blood pressure
low blood pressure
Highblood pressure
Sinoatrial Node
The pace maker; highly specialized neurological tissue, embedded in the wall of the right atrium, responsible for initiating electrical conduction of the heartbeat causing the atria to contract and firing conduction of impulses to the AV node.
Atrioventricular node
Neurological tissue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His
Bundle of His
Neurological fibers extending from the AV node to the right and left bundle branches tat fire the impulse from the AV node to the Purkinje fibers
Purkinje Fibers
Fibers in he ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract.
Resting, resting state of a myocardial cell
Change of a myocardial cell from a resting state to a state of contraction
Recharging of the myocardial cell from a contrated state back to a resting state.
Normal Sinus Rhythm
Regular rhythm of the heart cycle stimulated b the SA node
Thickening loss of elasticity and calcification of the arterial walls
build up of fatty substances within the walls of arteries
Atheromatous Plaque
a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the build up of fat
a stationary blood clot
a clot carried in the bloodstream that obstructs when it lodges
condition of narrowing a part
Compression of a part
Plugging obstruction or a closing off
To hold back blood decreased blood flow to tissue casued by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
Perfusion deficit
a lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing occlusions, etc.
to stiff a localized area of necrosis caused by ischemia as a result of occlusion of a blood vessel
angina pectoris
chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle often caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries
a widening bulging f the wall of the heart, the aorta, or an artery caused by congenital defect or aquired weakness
a sac like bulge on one side
a spindle-shaped bulge
a split or tear of the vessel wall
to limp pain in a limb (especially the calf) while walking that subsides after rest, it is caused by inadequate blood supply
profuse sweating
heart murmur
an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves
subjective experience of pounding, skipping or racing heartbeats
to grow, an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally a result of an infection such as bacterial endocarditis
any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
slow heart rate below 60 beats per minute
chaotic, irregular contractions of the eart, as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation
extremely rapid but regular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventrical flutter
heart block
an interference with the normal electrical conduction of the heart defined by the location of the block
premature ventricular contraction
a ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node
fast heart rate over 100 beats per minute
arteriosclerotic heart disease
a degenerative condition of the arteries charaterized by thickening of the inner lining loss of elasticity and susceptibility to rupture seen most often in the aged or smokers
bacterial endocarditis
a bacterial inflammation that affects the endcardium or the heart valves
cardiac tamponade
compression of the heart produced by the accumulatio of fliud in the pericardial sac as results from pericarditis or trauma causing rupture of a blood vessel within the heart
a general term for disease of the heart muscle
congenital anomaly of the heart
malformations of the heart present at birth
artial septal defect
an operning in the septum separating the atria
coarctation of the aorta
nattowing of the descending portion of the aorta resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body
patent ductus arteriosus
an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by the failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth
tetralogy of Fallot
an anomaly that consists of for defects, ulmonary stenosis, centricular septal defect, malposistion of the aorta and right centricular hypertrophy causes blood to bypass the pulmonary circulation s that deozygenated blood goes into the systematic circulation resulting in cyanosis
ventricular septal defect
an opening in the septum separating the ventricles
congestive heart failure
left ventricular failure
failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet thedemands of the body, resulting in a bottleneck of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins causing edema in lower portions of the body.
cor pulmonale
right ventricular failure
a condition of enlargement of the right ventricle as aresult of chonic disease within thelungs that causes congestion within thepulmonary cicrculation andressitanceof blood flow to the lungs
coronary artery disease
a condition affecting arteries of theheart that reduces the flow of blod and delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium- most often caused by atherosclerosis
persistently high blood pressure
essential primary hypertension
high blod pressure attricuted to no single cause but risks include smoking, obesity increased salt intake hypercholesterolemia and hereditary factors
secondary hypertension
high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease
mitral valve
protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
myocardial infaraction
heart attrak death of myocardial tissue owing to loss of blood flow as a result of an occlusion of a coronary artery usually caused by atherosclerosis, symptoms include pain in the chest or upper body shortness of breath diaphoresis and nausea
inflammation of the myocardium most often caused by viral or bacterial infection
infammation of the pericardium
inflammation of a vein
rheumatic heart disease
damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever
inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
varicose veins
abnormally swollen twisted veins with defective valves most often seen in the legs
deep vein thrombosis
formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body, occurring most often in the femoral and iliac veins
a physical examination method o listening to sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope
noise an abornomal heart sound caused by turbulence within
an abnormal heart sound that mimics that gait of a horse, related to abnormal ventricular contradictions
an electrical picture of the heart represented by positive and negative deflections on a graph laeled with the letters {QRST corresponding to events of the cardiac cycle
an EGG of the heart recorded during the induction of controlled physical exercise using a treadmill or ergometer useful in detecting conditions such as ischemia and infarction
holter ambulatory monitor
a portable electrocardiograph worn by the patient that monitors electrical activity of the heart over 24 hours useful in detecting periodic abnormalities
intracardiac eletrophsiological study
invasve procedure involving placement of catheter guided electrodes within the heart to evaluate and map the electrical conduction of cardiac arrhythmias
x- ray imaging
an x ray of a blood vessel after injection of contrast medium
a record obtained by angiography
coronary angio gram
an e ray of the blod vessels of the heart
an x ray of a particular artery
an x ray of the aorta
an x ray of a vein
left heart catheterization
an x ray of the left ventricular cavity and coronary arteries
right heart catheterization
measurement of oxygen saturation and pressure readings of the right side of the heart
entriblesan x ray visualizing the venricles
stroke volume
measurement of the amount of blood ejected from a ventricle in one contraction
cardiac output
measurement of the amount of bood ejected from either centricle of the heart per minute
ejection fraction
measurement of the volume percentage of left centricular contents ejected with each contraction
sonographic imaging
recording of sound waves through the heart to evaluate structure and motion
stress echocardiogram
an echcardiogram of the heart recorded during the induction of controlled physical exercise or administration of a pharmaceutical agent that produces the effect of exercise stress in patients unable to ambulate useful in detecting conditions such as ischemia and infarction
transesophageal echocardiogram
an echocardiographic image of the heart after placement of an ultrasonic transducer at the end of an endoscope inside the esophagus
doppler sonogrpahy
an ultrasound technique used to evalute blood flow to determine the presence of a deep vein thrombosis or carotid insuffiency or flow through the heart chambers valves
intravascular sonography
ultra sound images made after a sonographic transducer is placed at the tip of a catheter within a blood vessel done to evaluate pathological condiditons such as buildup of plaque
opening joining of two blood vessels to allow flow from one to the other
incision and coring of the lining of an artery to clear a blockage caused by a clot or atherosclerotic plaque buildup
transesophageal echocardiogram
an echocardiographic image of the heart after placement of an ultrasonic transducer at the end of an endoscope inside the esophagus
doppler sonography
an ultrasound technique used to evaluate blood flow to determine the presence of a deep vein thrombosis or carotid insufficiency or flow through the heart chambers valve
intravascular sonography
ultrasound images made after a sonographic transducer is placed at the tip of a catheter within a blood vessel done to evaluate pathological conditions such as buildup of plaque
coronary artery bypass
grafting of a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body to bypass an occluded myocardial tissue the traditional method includes temporary arrest of the heart with circulation of the patients blood through a heart-lung machine during the procedure- an alternative off-pump approach uses a stabilizer to perform the procedure on the beating heart
opening joining of two blood vessels to allow flow from one to the other
incision and coring of the lining of an artery to clear a blockage caused by a clot or atherosclerotic plaque buildup
transmyocardial revascularization
a laser technique used to open tiny channels in the heart muscle to restore blood flow thereby relieving angina in patients with advanced coronary artery disease an option for patients not treatable with angioplasty or coronary artery bypass
valve replacement
surgery to replace a diseased heart valve with an artificial one

tissue - made from animal tissue

mechanical made from synthetic material
repair of a heart valve
endovascular surgery
interventional procedures performed endoscopically at the time of cardiac catheterization
use of a flexible fiberoptic angioscope accompanied by an irrigation system a camera a video recorder and a monitor that is guided through a specific blood vessel to visually assess a lesion AND select the mode of therapy
exicision of atheromatous plaque from within an artery utilizing a device housed in a flexible catheter that selectively cuts away or pulverizes tissue build up
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
a method of treating the narrowing of a coronary artery by inserting a specialized catheter with a balloon attachment then inflating it to di;ate and open the narrowed portion of the vessel and restore blood flow to the myocardium most often includes placement of a stent
intravascular stent
implantation of a device used to reinforce the wall of a vessel and ensure its patency most often used to treat a stenosis or a dissection or to reinforce patency of a vessel after angioplasty
termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivery of an electrical stimulus to the heart, most commonly by applying electrodes of the defibrillator externally to the chest wall but can be performed internally at the time of open heart surgery or via an implanted device
a device that delivers the electrical stimulus in defibrillation
termination of tachycardia by pharmaceutical means or by delivery of electrical energy
implantable cardioverter defibrillator
an implanted, battery operated device with rate sensing leads that monitors cardiac impulses and iniriates an electrical stimulus as needed to stop ventricular fibrillation or tachybardia
a device used to treat slow heart rates for electrically stimulating the heart to contract, most often implanted with lead wires and battery circuitry under the skin but can be temporarily place externally with lead wires inserted into the heart via a vein
thrombolytic therapy
dissoluction of thrombi using drugs streptokinase, tissue plasminogen activator
angiotensin-coverting enzyme inhibitor
a drug that suprsses the conversion of angiotensin in the blood by the angiotensin coverting enzyme used in the treatment of hypertension
a drug that dilates coronary arteries, restoring oxygen to the tissues to relieve the pain of angina pectoris
a drug that counteracts cardiac arrhythmia
a drug that prevents clotting of the blood commonly used in treating thrombophlebitis and myocardial infarction
a drug that lowers blood pressure
beta-adrenergic blocking agents

beta blockers
agents that inhibit responses to sympathetic adrenergic nerve activity causing a slowing of electrical conduction and heart rate and a lowering of the pressure within the walls of the vessels used to treat angina pectoris and hypertension
calcium channel blockers
agents that inhibit the entry of calcium ions in heart muscle cells causing a slowing of the heart rate, lessening the demand for oxygen and nutrients and relaxing of the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels to cause dilation used to prevent or treat angina pectoris some arrhythmias and hypertension
a dru that increases the force of myocardial contractions in the heart commonly used to treat congestive heart failure
a drug that increases the secretion of urine commonly prescribed in treating hypertension
a drug that reduces serum fat and cholesterol
agents that lower cholesterol in the blood by inhibiting the effect of HMG-CoA reductase, a liver enzyme respnsible for producing cholesterol
thrombolytic agents
drugs used to dissolve thrombi streptokinase tissue plasminogen activator
a drug that causes narrowing of the blood vessels decreasing blood flow
a drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels, increasing blood flow