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35 Cards in this Set

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What is the name of the rigid structure, outside the plasma membrane, that surrounds, supports, and protects the cell?
cell wall.
what are the structures that are surface appendages that allow a bacterium to stick to a surface.
pili
Where are proteins synthesized?
ribosomes
sticky, jellylike protective layer outside the cell wall
capsule
Which structure acts as a selective barrier, allowing passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes?
plasma membrane
Where is the cell's DNA, containing the genes that control the cell? (prokaryotic)
nucleoid region
Which structure propels the cell?
flagellum
what is the endomembrane system?
The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.
What are some of the purposes of the endomembrane system?
-secretion outside the cell
- creating lysosomes
- replacing proteins in the plasma membrane.
endomembrane system: step one
A secretory protein is synthesized inside the rough endoplasmic reticulum, migrates through it, and exits inside a vesicle.
endomembrane system: step 2
The vesicle travels through the cytoplasm to the Golgi apparatus.
endomembrane system: step 3
The Golgi apparatus modifies the protein.
endomembrane system: step 4
The protein is dispatched from the Golgi in a transport vesicle that then fuses with the plasma membrane, releasing the protein to the outside of the cell.
what is responsible for cellular respiration?
the mitochondria
what function is chloroplast responsible for?
photosynthesis
what is flagellum (pl. flagella)?
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules, ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.
what is cilia (s. cilium)?
A short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.
what are tight junctions?
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells.
what are anchoring junctions?
Adhesive junctions that link cells together into tissues.
what are gap junctions?
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells; also known as a communicating junction.
what's a plasmodesmata?
An open channel in the cell wall of plants through which strands of cytosol connect from adjacent cells.
Which large organelle contains most of the genes that control the cell?
the nucleus.
What is the double membrane that encloses the nucleus?
the nuclear membrane.
What is the name given to the strands containing DNA (genes) along with associated protein?
chromatin.
Where are ribosomal subunits made?
nucleolus
Can you identify the membranous tubules and sacs where secretory proteins and membranes are manufactured?
rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Can you identify the portion of the endomembrane system important in lipid synthesis, detoxification, and calcium storage?
smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
Which organelle modifies, stores, and repackages products of the ER, mostly for secretion?
the golgi apparatus.
Where would you find a stockpile of digestive enzymes, important in breaking down nutrients, destroying bacteria, recycling, and development?
lysosome
What are the rods that shape and support the cell, and serve as tracks along which other organelles can move?
microtubules
Which cell components are identical in structure to basal bodies?
centrioles
Which organelle carries out diverse metabolic processes and produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a by-product, which it converts to water (H2O)?
peroxisomes
What are thin, solid protein rods, especially numerous in muscle cells, involved in cell support and movement?
microfilaments
Which organelle contains grana, where chlorophyll traps solar energy?
chloroplast
Which organelle is a membrane- enclosed sac important in storage, waste disposal, protection, and growth?
central vacuole