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151 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
alveol/o
alveolos (air sac)
bronch/o, bronchi/o
bronchus (airway)
bronchiol/o
bronchiole (little airway)
capn/o, carb/o
carbon dioxide
laryng/o
larynx (voice box)
lob/o
lobe (a portion)
nas/o, rhin/o
nose
or/o
mouth
ox/o
oxygen
palat/o
palate
pharyng/o
pharynx
phren/o
diaphragm (also mind)
pleur/o
pleura (lining of the lungs)
pneum/o, pneumon/o
air or lung
pulmon/o
lung
sinus/o
sinus (cavity)
spir/o
breathing
thorac/o, pector/o, steth/o
chest
tonsill/o
tonsil
trache/o
trachea (windpipe)
uvul/o
uvula
-pnea
breathing
nose
structure that warms, moistens, and filters air as it enters the respiratory tract; houses receptors for smell
sinuses
air filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity
palate
the roof of the mouth; divided into the hard and soft palate
pharynx
throat; passageway for the food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
nasopharynx
part of the pharynx directly behind the nasal passages
oropharynx
central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis
laryngopharynx
lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharynx opening into the larynx and esophagus
tonsils
oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion; also called palatine tonsils
adenoid
lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose; also called pharyngeal tonsil
uvula
small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate, named for its grapelike shape
larynx
voice box,; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
glottis
opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
epiglottis
a lid like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
trachea
windpipe; passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina, where it splits into right and left bronchus
bronchial tree
branched airways that lead from the trachea to the microscopic air sacs called alveoli
right and left bronchus
two primary airways branching from the area of the carina into the lungs
bronchioles
progressively smaller tubular branches of air paths
alveoli
thin-walled microscopic air sacs that exchange gases
lungs
two spongy organs in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration
lobes
subdivisions of the lung; two on the left and three on the right
pleura
membranes enclosing the lung (visceral pleura) and lining the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)
pleural cavity
potential space between visceral and parietal layers of the pleura
diaphragm
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and moves up and down to aid respiration
mediastinum
partition that separates the thorax into two compartments and encloses the hear, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland
mucous membranes
thins sheets of tissue that line reparatory passages and secrete mucus, a viscid fluid
cilia
hair like processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as those of the bronchi, to move mucus cell secretions upward
parenchyma
functional tissues of any organ, such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts and sacs that perform respiration
eupnea
normal breathing
bradypnea
slow breathing
tachypnea
fast breathing
hypopnea
shallow breathing
hyperpnea
deep breathing
dyspnea
difficulty breathing
apnea
inability to breathe
orthopnea
ability to breathe only in the upright position
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and sometimes rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease resulting in apnea
crackles
popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lungs when air enters diseased airways and alveoli
rales
popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lungs when air enters diseased airways and alveoli
wheezes
high-pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lungs as air flows through a narrowed airway; occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema
rhonchi
high-pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lungs as air flows through a narrowed airway; occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema
stridor
a high pitched crowing sound that occurs with an obstruction in the upper airway
cyanosis
a bluish coloration of the skin caused by a deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
dysphonia (phon/o = voice or sound0
hoarseness
epistaxis (stazo = to drip)
nosebleed
expectoration
coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs
sputum
material expelled from the lungs by coughing
hemoptysis (ptysis = spit)
coughing up and spitting out blood originating in the lungs
hypercapnia, hypercarbia
excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperventilation
excessive movement of air in and out of the lungs, causing hypocapnia
hypoventilation
deficient movement of air in and out of the lungs, causing hypercapnia
hypoxemia
deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
hypoxia
deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
obstructive lung disorder
condition blocking the flow of air moving out of the lungs
restrictive lung disorder
condition limiting the intake of air into the lungs
caseous necrosis
degeneration and death of tissue with a cheese like appearance
pulmonary edema
fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli and eventually flooding into the alveoli
pulmonary infiltrate
density on an x-ray representing the consolidation of the matter within air spaced of the lungs, usually resulting from an inflammatory process
rhinorrhea
thin, watery discharge from the nose
asthma
panting, obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane
atelectasis
collapse of lung tissue
bronchitis
inflammation of the bronchi
bronchogenic carcinoma
lung cancer; cancer originating in the bronchi
bronchospasm
constriction of bronchi caused by spasm of the peribronchial smooth muscle
emphysema
obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of alveoli with air and destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx
laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB), croup
inflammation of the upper airways with swelling that creates a funnel shaped elongation of tissue causing a distinct, “seal bark” cough
laryngospasm
spasm of laryngeal muscles, causing a constriction
nasal polyposis
presence of numerous polyps in the nose (tumor on a stalk)
pharyngitis
inflammation of the pharynx
coryza
head cold; inflammation of the nasal mucous membranes
pleural effusion
accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavity
empyema, pyothorax
accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
hemothorax
blood in pleural cavity
pleuritis, pleurisy
inflammation of the pleura
pneumoconiosis
chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dust such as coal
pneumonia
an inflammation in the lung caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites
pneumocystis pneumonia
pneumonia caused by the pneumocystis carinii organism, common in people with AIDS
pneumohemothorax
air and blood in the pleural cavity
pneumonitis
inflammation of the lung often caused by hypersensitivity to chemicals or dust
pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)
disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs, characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation and necrotizing caseous lesions
sinusitis
inflammation of the sinuses
sleep apnea
periods of breathing cessation that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
tonsillitis
acute of chronic inflammation of the tonsils
upper respiratory infection (URI)
infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx and bronchi
arterial blood gases (ABGs)
analysis of arterial blood to determine adequacy of lung function in the exchange of gases
pH
a measure of the blood acidity or alkalinity
PaO2
partial pressure of oxygen measuring the amount of oxygen in the blood
PaCO2
partial pressure of carbon dioxide measuring the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
endoscopy
examination inside a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnostic treatment purposes
bronchoscopy
use of bronchoscope to examine air ways
nasopharyngoscopy
use of a flexible endoscope to examine the nasal passages and the pharynx to diagnose structural abnormalities such as obstructions, growths, and cancers
auscultation
to listen; a physical examination method of listening to the sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope
percussion
tapping over the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size, border, or fluid content of a cavity, such as the chest
lung biopsy
removal of a small piece of lung tissue for pathologic examination
lung scan
a two part scan of the lungs to detect abnormalities of ventilation or perfusion
magnetic resonance image (MRI)
non ionizing image of the lung to visualize lung lesions
polysomnography (PSG)
recording of various aspects of sleep for diagnosis of sleep disorders
pulmonary function testing (PET)
direct and indirect measurements of lung volumes and capacities
spirometry
a direct measurement of lung volume and capacity
tidal volume (TV or Vt)
amount of air exhaled after normal inspiration
vital capacity (VC)
amount of air exhaled after a maximal inspiration
peak flow (PF), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR)
measure of the fastest flow of exhaled air after a maximal inspiration
chest x-ray (CXR)
x-ray of the chest to visualize the lungs
pulmonary angiography
x-ray of the blood vessels of lungs after injection of contrast material
adenoidectomy
excision of adenoids
lobectomy
removal of a lobe of a lung
nasal polypectomy
removal of a nasal polyp
pneumonectomy
removal of and entire lung
thoracentesis
puncture for aspiration of the chest
thoracoplasty
repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs
thoracoscopy
endoscopic examination of the pleural cavity using a thorascope
thoracostomy
creation of an opening in the chest, usually to insert a tub
thoracotomy
incision into chest
tonsillectomy
excision of palatine tonsils
tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T & A)
excision of tonsils and adenoids
tracheostomy
creation of an opening in the trachea, usually to insert a tube
tracheotomy
incision into the trachea
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
a method of artificial respiration and chest compressions to move oxygeneted blood to vital organs when breathing and the heart have stopped
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
a device that pumps a constant pressurized flow of air through the nasal passages, commonly used during sleep to prevent airway closure and sleep apnea
endotracheal intubation
passage of a tube into the trachea via the nose or mouth to open the airway for delivering gas mixtures to the lungs
incentive spirometry
a common postoperative breathing therapy using a specially designed spirometer to encourage the patient to inhale and hole an inspiratory volume to exercise the lungs and prevent pulmonary complications
mechanical ventilation
mechanical breathing using a ventilator
antibiotic
a drug that kills or inhibits growth of microorganisms
anticoagulant
a dug that dissolves, or prevents the formation of, thrombi or emboli in the blood vessels
antihistamine
a drug that neutralizes or inhibits the effects of histamine
histamine
a compound in the body that is released by injured cells in allergic reactions, inflammation, and so on, causing constriction of bronchial smooth muscle and dilation of blood vessels
bronchodilator
a drug that dilates the muscular walls of the bronchi
expectorant
a drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing