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28 Cards in this Set

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chemical weathering, p 185
a process changing a mineral's internal structure by removing elements, or adding elements, or both.
differential weathering, p 196
variations in both the rate and degree of weathering. Differential weathering is affected by mineral makeup, degree of jointing (cracking), and climate.
dissolution, p 187
a form of chemical weathering. Dissolution is the process of dissolving into a homogeneous solution. Dissolution goes on when acid dissolves limestone.
a process by which material dissolved or suspended in water within soil moves down or sideways as rainwater moves through the soil
comment: eluvium is residual deposits of soil, dust, and rock particles produced by the action of the wind. But the root of the word comes from water . . ."eluere", to wash out
erosion, p 185
the transportation of materials by a moving agent such as water, ice, or wind
exfoliation dome, p 186
large, dome-shaped structure, usually composed of granite, formed by sheeting
external processes, p 184
weathering, mass wasting, or erosion powered by solar energy or gravity. These processes change solid rock into organic-free sediment (regolith).
frost wedging, p 186
the mechanical breakup of rock caused by the expansion of freezing water in cracks and crevices.
horizon, p 201
a layer in a soil profile
humus, p 197
Organic matter in soil produced by the decomposition of plants and animals
hydrolysis, p 190
A chemical weathering process where minerals on a rock's surface are altered by reactng with molecules derived from the splittng apart of water. The water breaks up into hydrogen ions (paired hydrogen atoms) and hydroxyl ions (a molecule made of paired oxygen and hydrogen).
internal process, p 185
A process such as mountain building or volcanism that derives its energy from the earth's interior. Internal processes elevate the Earth's surface.
leaching, p 203
the depletion of soluble materials from the upper soil by downard percolating water.
leaching is eluviation of dissolved materials by water. The water is usually a bit acidic.
mass wasting, p 185
gravity-caused movement of rock, regolith, and soil down a slope
mechanical weathering, p 185
the physical disintegration of rock resulting in small fragments (this dis NOT chemical breakdown)
physical disintegration can speed up chemical breakdown by making the pieces smaller and smaller and thus easier to dissolve
oxidation, p 185
the removal of one or more electrons from an atom in a compound. Oxidation got its name because many elements can combine with oxygen by losing an electron. When substances oxidize, they become less rigid and increasingly unstable chemically.
Common oxides are of iron and aluminum
red soil = iron oxide
yellow soil = aluminum oxide
parent material, p 198
the material underground from which a soil develops
regolith, 197
soil without any biological material (plants or animal remains). Regolith is everywhere where rocks break down. If it mixes with organic remains, regolith becomes soil.
The surface of the moon is covered with regolith, not with soil.
sheeting, p 186
a mechanical weathering process where slablike sheets or rock split off from the main rock mass.
soil, p 197
a combination of mineral and organic matter, water, and air. Soil is that part of the regolith that supports plant growth.
soil profile, p 201
a vertical section through a soil, showing its succession of horizons and the underlying parent material
soil taxonomy, p 204
a soil classification with six hierarchical categories based on soil characteristics. The system recognizes 12 soil orders.
OMIT - we're not going into this
spheroidal weathering, p 194
any weathering process producing spherical shape from an initially blocky shape
talus slope, p 186
the sloping accumulation of rock debris often piling up at the base of a cliff. see the diagram on page 702
talus can also be called "Scree"
weathering, p 185
either disintegration or decompostition (or both) of rock at or near the earth's surface
top soil
The uppermost two soil horizons where biological activity occurs. Top soil includes the O horizon where loose organic matter accumulates as humus together with the
A horizon which consists of both organic and mineral matter.
The lower two horizone in a soil profile where mosts of the chemical activity occurs. Subsoil consists of the E horizon (the zone of eluviation and leaching)together with the
B horizon (zone where leached materials are deposited and accumulate.
soft, partially decomposed rock at the base of a soil profile. Saprolite is rich in clay and remains in its original place. Much of Arlington, Virginia, is covered by saprolite.