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29 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Electronic Structure

Describes the energies and arrangement of electrons around the atom or molecule


Electromagnetic Radiation

A form of energy that has wave characteristics and propagates through a vacuum at a speed of 3.00*10 to the 8th meters/sec


Electromagnetic spectrum

the complete range of electromagnetic waves, from radio waves to gamma rays


Wavelength

The distance between two crests of a wave


Blackbody radiation

The electromagnetic radiation emitted by a heated object


Quantum

A small, discrete packet of light energy


Photoelectric effect

the emission of electrons from a metal surface induced by light


Work function

the amount of energy required for an electron to overcome the attractive forces that hold it to the metal


Planck's constant (h)

the constant that relates the energy and frequency of a photon. the value of planck's constant is 6.63*10 to the 34 Jsec


Photons

another term for a single quantum of light, a name chosen to emphasize the particulate nature of light


Spectrum

the distribution among various wavelengths of the radiant energy emitted or absorbed by an object


continuous spectrum

a spectrum that contains radiation distributed over all wavelengths


line spectrum

spectrum that contains radiation at only certain specific wavelengths


ground state

the lowest energy or most stable state


excited states

a higher energy state than the ground state


matter waves

describes the wave characteristics of a particle


Heisenberg Uncertainty principle

There is an inherent uncertaint in the precision with which we can simultaneously specify the position and the momentum of a particle. This uncertainty is significant only for extremely small particles such as electrons


Wave function

a mathematical description of an allowed energy state (an orbital) for an electron in the quantum mechanical model of the atom. It is usually symbolized by the greek letter psi


probability density

a value that represents the probablility that an electron will be found at a given point in sapce


probability cloud

the pattern of electron positions plotted over time to show the likelihood of an electron's being at a given position at a given time


orbitals

allowed wave functions of the hydrogen atom, described by a combination of an integer and a letter, corresponding to values of three quantum numbers


subshell

the set of one or more orbitals with the same n and l values


electron shell

the set of all orbitals with the same value of n, such as 3s, 3p, and 3d


radial probablility function

tells us the probability that the electron will be found at a certain distance from the nucleus


nodes

the point at which the amplitude of the wave function is zero


fblock metals

the antinides and lanthanides


rydberg constant

determined when measuring the spectrum of hydrogen, relates the values of hydrogen's principle quantum numbers to their energy


degenerate

term used to describe orbitals within the same subshell are degenerate which have the same energy


Hund's rule

states that the lowest energy is attained by maximizing the number of electrons with the same electron spin
