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46 Cards in this Set

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English scientist who published his work in the volumes known as the Great Renewal. He attacked the earlier scientists and looked with doubt on how anyone can really be certain in what they know. He started the inductive method, rather than the deductive method. He then realized science could be used for real knowledge.
Bacon
French scientist (1596-1650), he focused on doubt of what people really knew just like Bacon. He was a great mathematician, and created coordinate geometry. His focus on doubt became strong when he began doubting everything that could reasonably be doubted. He from the Discourse on Method and created Cartesian dualism.
Descartes
French essayist whose thought distilled itself into the eternal question, " What do i know?" with the always implied answer "Nothing." This philosophy led to a tolerant, humane, and broad-minded outlook, but as a system of thought it was not very constructive.
Montaigne
He mixed magic with valid science in a way hardly understandable to later or modern scientists. He was known as a charlatan, where there was no accepted line between chemistry and alchemy or astronomy and astrology, all were ways of penetrating the secrets of nature.
Paracelsus
He is also a charlatan who mixed magic and valid science in a way which could not be understood by modern scientists.
Nostradamus
The founding of knowledge on observation and experience. This was formalized by Bacon and his theory of inductive reasoning.
empiricism
The theory that we may arrive at a knowledge based on observed facts. This theory starts with the individual and proceeds to the general, from the concrete to the abstract.
induction
This theory draws logical implications from what we already know, or thought we knew at the beginning. This begins with the general idea and proceeds to the individual.
deduction
Descartes said this quote, meaning that he must exist because he was a thinking and doubting being. From this he deduced the existence of God and much else.
"I think, therefore I am"
This philosophy held that God has created two kinds of fundamental reality in the universe. "Thinking substance" which was the mind, spirit, consciousness, and subjective experience. "Extended substance" was everything outside the mind and objective.
Cartesian dualism
Bacon and Descartes said that there was a true and reliable method of knowledge, and once this was practiced and the real workings of nature were understood, people would be able to use this knowledge for their own purposes.
scientific method
Greek who codified ancient astronomy in the 2nd century. The educated held a conception of the cosmos which we call Ptolemaic, and this view was a group of concentric spheres, a series of balls within balls each having the same center.
Ptolemy
Born in Poland of German and Polish background, who wrote his epochal work On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs. He held that the sun to be at the center of the solar system and of the whole universe; the earth was one of the planets revolving in space around it. He gave a mathematical demonstration.
Copernicus
He built a telescope, and percieved that the moon had a rough and apparently mountainous surface, as if made of the same kind of material as the earth. He saw spots on the sun, and found that the planets has visible breadth when seen in the telescope. He found mathematical laws describing the movement of planets, and the movement of bodies on the earth.
Galileo
German mathematical mystic, part time astrologer, and scientific genius. He discovered that the orbits of the planets were ellipses. He demonstrated that the closer a planet is to the sun in its elliptical orbit, the faster it moves; and he showed that the length of time in which several planets revolve around about the sun varies proportionately with their distance from the sun.
Kepler
He spoke of universal gravitation, and showed that all motion that could be timed or measured, could be described in the same mathematical formulas. In his time the pursuit of natural knowledge became institutionalized.
Newton
Flemish who published a book in 1543 called the Structure of the Human Body which renewed and modernized the study of anatomy.
Vesalius
His writings contained an authoritative description of all human muscles and tissues.
Galen
He published a book in 1628 On the Movement of the Heart and Blood which set forth the doctrine of the continual circulation of the blood through the arteries and veins.
Harvey
Italian who confirmed Harveys findings by the discovery of capillaries in 1661 using the newly invented microscope.
Malpighi
Dutch was the first to see blood corpiscles, spermatozoa, and bacteria, of which he left published drawings. This was through the use of a microscope.
Leeuwenhoek
Dutch scientist who published the first description of the female ovaries, thus challenging Garvey's ancient theories of human sexuality and the long accepted idea that women contributed less that men to the biological processes of reproduction.
de Graaf
Invented logarithms in 1614.
Napier
Invented the theory of probabilities.
Pascal
Invented calculous in Germany while Newton was inventing the same thing simultaneously in England.
Leibniz
The greatest authority on the actual positions and movements of the heavenly bodies in the generations immediately after Copernicus, and never accepted the Copernican system in full.
Tycho Brahe
These were invented by Scot John Napier in 1614 as part of a movement where mathematics underwent rapid development.
logarithms
The theory that the earth was the center and the sun and other planets revolved around it.
geocentrism
The theory that the sun was the center and the planets revolved around it.
heliocentric theory
The Ptolemaic system was made more intricate through the addition of these, as was explained by John Milton.
epicycles
He was the greatest spokesman for the skepticism movement. He was influenced by the scientific discoveries, although he did not necessarily understand them. He argued that there was no basis for any such beliefs except human credility.
Bayle
He was the first to predict the return of the comet. The comet reappeared again and is still named after him.
Halley
Anglican prelate of Ireland who after much study of the Bible, announced the date of 4004 BC as the creation of the world. His chronological system was later printed in the margins of the authorized version of the english bible.
Bishop Usher
French priest who published a pioneering work in Biblical criticism, called Critical History of the OT. Book was condemned by the church and the government, but he felt himself to be orthodox. Catholic faith, he insisted, depended more on church tradition that on the literal statements of the Bible. He said that the OT contained obvious errors and contradictions.
Simon
Jew of Amsterdam who was excommunicated by his own synagogue and refused a professorship at Univ. of Heidelberg. He arrived at the philosophy that God had no existence apart from the world, that everything was itself an aspect of God - a philosophy technically called pantheism but considered by many to be atheistic.
Spinoza
Englishman who summarized many of the intellectual trends of his lifetime and exerted a strong influence for the following hundred years. He combined practical experience and theoretical interests into a philosophy. He often asked if it was possible to know anything with certainty.
Locke
Published the first great book devoted to the subject of "law of nations" in his Law of War and Peace in 1625.
Grotius
He followed the scientific and mathematical discoveries of his time. He held to a materialistic and even atheistic system. He sided with the king against parliament because he hated the disorder and violence of the civil war of 1640s. He held that people in the state of nature were quarrelsome and turbulent. He became the leading secular exponent of absolutism and one of the principal theorists of the unlimited sovereignty of the state.
Hobbes
The theory that some elements and aspects of experience or culture are dependent on other aspects. It became harder to believe in any absolute rightness of one's own ways.
relativism
An idea that all beliefs are relative, varying with time and place. The major advocate was Bayle. He taught that there was no basis for beliefs except for human credulity. He spoke about how there is a tremendous repository of miscellaneous love, conveying the message that what is called truth is often mere opinion, and that most people are amazingly gullible.
skepticism
The philosophy that God had no existence apart from the world, that everything was itself an aspect of God. It was considered by many to be like atheism.
pantheism
"blank tablet" Descartes held that the mind at birth is a blank tablet and that the social environment shapes what people think or believe.
tabula rasa
It held that there is, somehow, in the structure of the world, a law that distinguishes right from wrong. It held that right is natural and not a mere human invention. This right is not determined, but that unfairness and injustice is detected by comparing them with natural law as we understand it.
theory of natural law
The state that people would be in or imagined to exist without government. Hobbes stated that this state was extremely low and the humans were quarrelsome and turbulent, locked in a war against all, if there was no government.
"state of nature"
The monster mentioned in the Bible, Job 41. Hobbes used this as the title for his book, in which he stated it was dangerous for anyone to question the government and order should be maintained.
Leviathan
Italian philosopher.
Bruno