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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms toggether
chemical bond
a chemical bond resulting from the sharing of an electron pair between two atoms
covalent bonding
the chemical bond resulting fom electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions
ionic bonding
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms resulting in the balanced distribution of electrical charge
nonpolar covalent bond
having an uneven distribution of charge
a covalent bond in which the baonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons
polar-covalent bond
the energy required to break a chemical bond and from neutral isolated atoms
bond energy
the distance between two bonded atoms at their minimal potential energy, that is, the average distance between two bonded atoms
bond length
a formula that indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numberical subscripts
chemical formula
a molecule containing only two atoms
diatomic molecule
a covalent bond produced by the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms
double bond
an ellectron configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular elements are shown, indicated by the dots placed around the element's symbol
electron-dot notation
a formula in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner shell electrons dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represents electron pairs in covalent bonds and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent uncharged electrons
Lewis structure
a pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom
lone pair
a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
molecular compound
a formula showing the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound
molecular formula
a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds
a double or triple bond
multiple bond
chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its hightest occupied energy level
octet rule
the bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis Structure
a covalent bond produced by the sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms
single bond
a formula that indicates the number and types of atoms present in a molecule and also shows the bonding arrangement of the atoms; a formulat that indicates the kind, number, arrangement, and bonds but not the unshared electron pair of the atoms in a molecule
structural formula
a covalent bond produced by the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms
triple bond
a pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusivelt to one atom
unshared pair
the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound's formula can be established
formulat unit
a compound composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive nad negative charges are equal
ionic compound
the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
lattice energy
a charged group of covalencely bonded atoms
polyatomic ion
the ability of a substance to be drawn puled or extruded trhough a small opening to produce a wire
the ability of a substance to be hammered into sheets
chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electroons
metallic bonding
equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance
orbitals of equal energy produced by the combinatinos of two or more orbitals on the same atom
hybrid orbitals
a force of attraction between polar molecules
dipole-dipole force
the mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies
the intermolectular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a hightly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule
hydrogen bonding
the force of attraction between molecules
intermolecular force
the uneven distribution of molecular charge
molecular polarity
in a chemical bond the link between atoms results from the attraction between electrons and
a covalent bond consists of
a shared electron pair
if two covalently bonded atoms are identical the bond is identified as
nonpolar covalent
a covalent bond in which there is an unequal attraction for the shared electrons is
atoms with a stron attraction for electrons they share with another atom exhibit
high electronegativity
bonds with between 5% and 50% ionic character are considered to be
polar covalent
a nonpolar covalent bond is likely to exist between
two identical atoms
the greater the electronegativity difference between two bonded atoms the greater the percentage of
ionic character
the electrons involved in the formation of a chemiucal bond are called
valence electrons
a chemical bond resulting from electronstatic attraction between positive and negative ions is called an
ionic bond
if the electrons involved in bonding spend most of the time close to one atom rather than the toher the bond is
polar covalent
a chemical bond that results from the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions is called an
ionic bond
if electrons involved in bondnig spend most of the time closer to one atom rather thatn the other the bond is
polar covalent
if a bond's character is more than 50% ionic if the electronegativity difference between the two atoms is greater than
a large difference in electronegativity between two atoms in a bond results in
ionic bonding
what happens when atoms bond with each other
they creeate arrangements of matter that are more stable
the type of bond that shares electrons
elements that lose electrons and form positive ions
metal-nonmetal bond
elements that gain electrons and from negative ions
electrons in the outermost energy levels
valence electrons
type of bond that transfers electrons
ionic bond
this bond forms compounds with low melting points
nonmetal nometal bond
this bond forms crystalline compounds
ionic bond
an atom or ion with a full outer energy level has a
when an atom of one element combines chemically with an atom of another element both atoms usually attain the stable highest energyy level configuratin of a
noble gas
in a molecule of fluprine the two shared electrons give each fluoroing atom ___ electrson in the outer energy level
in writing a lewis structure each nonmetal atom except hydrogen shuld be surrounded by
8 electrons
in writing a lewis structure the central atom is the
least electronegative atom
to draw the electron-dot symbols for each atom in a lewis structure one must know the
number of valence lectrons in each atom
nature favors chemical bonding because
potential energy is minimized when atoms are bonded
when atoms are drawn together by attractive forces their potential energy
is decreased
potential energy is at a minium when
the repulsion between the like charges equal the attraction of the opposite charges
atoms are drawn to each other because the electron-proton attraction
is stronger than the electron-electron and proton-proton repulsions
the molecular formula H20 indicates a molecule
with two atoms of hydrogen bonded with one atom of oxygen
the strength of attraction between charged particles depends on the distance between the atoms involved in the bonds. tf
the bond length is the distance between two bonded atoms at their maximum potential energy
the energy required to form a chemical bond between to neutral atoms is called bond energy
according to the octet rule chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom has an octet of electrons in tis hightes energy level
when the orbitals of the hydrogen atoms in a hydrogen molecule overlap the electron density between the nuclei decreases
in the formula for sodium chloride NaCl stands for one
formula unit
the chemical formula for an ionic compound represents the
simplest ratio of the combined ions that gives neutrality
in a crystal of an ionic compound, each catino is surrounded bby a number of
in a crystal the valence electrons of adjacent ions
neutralize each other
compared to the neutral atoms involved in its formationthe crystal lattice that results is
lower in potential energy
which of the following is NOT a proprerty of an ionic compound
vaporizes at room temp
compared to ionic compounds molecular compounds have
lower melting points
the forces of attraction between molecules ina molecular compound are
weaker than the forces of ionif bonding
at room temperature most ionic compounds will be
molecular compounds are ____ at room temperature
completely gaseous
which is true of ionic compounds
the ions cannot move in the solid structure
NaCl is a molecular compound
lattice energy is released when the ions in a crystal lattice are separated from each each otther
ionic compounds are electrical conductors in their molten staes
an ionic compound is compose dof independent netural elements that can be isolated from each other
the atoms in molecular compounds are held together by covalent bonds
calculating lattice energies helps chemists compare bond strentgths in ionic compounds
a polyatomic ion with a shortage of electrons has a positive charge