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33 Cards in this Set

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One of the three Civil War Amendments; specifically bans in slavery in the US
13th Amendment
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War.
Black Codes
One of the three Civil War Amendments; guarantees equal protection and due process of the laws to all US citizens.
14th Amendment
One of the three Civil War Amendments; specifically enfranchised newly freed male slaves.
15th Amendment
Laws enacted by southern states that discriminated against blacks by creating "whites only" schools, theathers, hotels, and other public accommodations.
Jim Crow laws
Name attached to five cases brought under the Civil Rights Act of 1875. In 1883, the Supreme Court decided that discrimination in a varitey of pubkic accomodations, including theaters, hotels, and railroads, could not be prohibited by the act because it was private, not state, discrimination.
Civil Rights Case (1883)
Voting qualification provision in many southern states that allowed only thoes whose grandfathers had voted before they passed a wealth or literacy test.
grandfather clause
Plessy challenged a Louisiana statute requiring that railroads provide separate accommodations for blacks and whites. The Court found that separate but equal accommodations did not violate the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment
Plessy v. Ferguson
The drive for voting rights for women that took place in the United States from 1890 to 1920
suffrage movement
Amendment to the Constitution that guaranteed women the right to vote.
19th Amendment
US Supreme Court decision holding that school segregation is inherently unconstitutional because it violates the 14th amendment's guarantee of equal protection; marked the end of legal segregation in the United States.
Brown v. the Board of Education (1954)
Section of the 14th Amendment that guarantees that all citizens recieve "equal protection of the laws."
equal protection clause
Legislation passed by Congress to outlaw segregation in public facilities and racial discrimination in employment, education, and voting; created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Racial segregation that is a direct result of law or official policy.
de jure discrimination
Racial discrimination that results from practice (such as housing patterns or other social factors) rather than the law.
de facto discrimination
Federal agency created to enfocre the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which forbids discrimiation on the basis of race, creed, national origin, religion, or sex in hiring, promotion, or firing.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Proposed amendment that would bar discrimination against women by federal or state governments.
Equal Rights Amendment
Category or class, such as race, that triggers the highest standard of scrutiny from the Supreme Court.
suspect classifacation
A heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to determine the consitutional valitdity of a challenged practice.
strict scrutiny
Provision of the Educational Amendments of 1972 that bars educational institutions recieveing federal finds from discriminationg against female students.
Title IX
Policies designed to give special attention or compensatory treatment to members of a previously disadvanteged group.
affirmative action
Federal agency created to enfocre the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which forbids discrimiation on the basis of race, creed, national origin, religion, or sex in hiring, promotion, or firing.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Proposed amendment that would bar discrimination against women by federal or state governments.
Equal Rights Amendment
Category or class, such as race, that triggers the highest standard of scrutiny from the Supreme Court.
suspect classifacation
A heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to determine the consitutional valitdity of a challenged practice.
strict scrutiny
Provision of the Educational Amendments of 1972 that bars educational institutions recieveing federal finds from discriminationg against female students.
Title IX
Policies designed to give special attention or compensatory treatment to members of a previously disadvanteged group.
affirmative action
Federal agency created to enfocre the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which forbids discrimiation on the basis of race, creed, national origin, religion, or sex in hiring, promotion, or firing.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Proposed amendment that would bar discrimination against women by federal or state governments.
Equal Rights Amendment
Category or class, such as race, that triggers the highest standard of scrutiny from the Supreme Court.
suspect classifacation
A heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to determine the consitutional valitdity of a challenged practice.
strict scrutiny
Provision of the Educational Amendments of 1972 that bars educational institutions recieveing federal finds from discriminationg against female students.
Title IX
Policies designed to give special attention or compensatory treatment to members of a previously disadvanteged group.
affirmative action