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40 Cards in this Set

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Information granularity
refer to the extent of detail within the information.
What are the information levels?
Individual, Departmental, Enterprise
Individual level
Individual knowledge, goals, and strategies
Department level
Departmental goals, revenues, expenses, processes, and strategies
Enterprise level
enterprise revenues, expenses, processes, and strategies
Real-time information
immediate, up-to-date information
Real-time system
provides real-time information in response to query requests.
Characteristics of high-quality information include:
Accuracy
Completeness
Consistency
Uniqueness
Timeliness
Database
maintains information about various types of objects, events, people,and places
hierarchical database model
information is organized into a tree like structure that allows repeating information using parent/child relationships in such a way that it cannot have to many relationships.
network database model
is a flexible way of representing objects and their relationship.
Relational database model
stores information in the form of logically related two-dimensional tabels
Entity
a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored.
-The rows in each table contain the entities
Attribute (field, column)
characteristics or properties of an entity class
What do primary keys and foreign keys identify?
the various entities(tables) in the database
Primary key
a field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table
Foreign key
a primary key of one table that appears an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship among the two tables
Relational database advantages
increased flexibility
increased scalability and performance
reduced information redundancy
increased information integrity (quality)
increased information security
Physical view
deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device
-have only one physical view
Logical view
focuses on how users logically access information.
-have multiple logical views
What is one of the primary problems with redundant information?
inconsistency
Integrity constraint
rules that help ensure the quality of information
Relational integrity constraints
are rules that enforce basic fundamental information constraints
ex) no creating an order for a customer that does not exists
Business-critical integrity constraint
enforce business rules vital to an organizations success and often require more insight and knowledge than relational integrity constraints.
Password
provides authentication of the user.
Access level
determines who has access to the different types of information
Access control
determines types of user access, such as read-only access.
Database Management Systems
(DBMS) software through which users and application programs interact with database
Data Driven websites
an interactive website kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers through the use of a database
integration
allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other
Forward integration
takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes.
Backward integration
takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes.
Data warehouse
a logical collection of information-gathered from many different operational databases - that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks
-The primary purpose of a data warehouse is to aggregate information throughout an organization into a single repository for decision-making purposes.
Extraction, transformation, and loading
(ETL) a process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms the information using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data warehouse.
Data Mart
contains a subset of data warehouse information.
Data-driven websites
an interactive website kept constantly updated and relevant to the need of its customers through the use of a database.
Multidimensional analysis
-databases contain information in series of two-dimensional tables
-In a data warehouse and data mart, information is multidimensional, it contains layers of columns and rows.
-Dimension: a particular attribute of information.
Cube
a common term for the representation of multidimensional information.
information cleansing or scrubbing
a process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information.
Data mining
the process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone
-to perform data mining users need data-mining tools
-data-mining tools helps users uncover business intelligence.