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16 Cards in this Set

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The study of the evolution of behavior, emphasizing the role of ecological factors as agents of natural selection. Behaviors and behavioral patterns have been selected for because they increase reproductive fitness in individuals (i.e., they are adaptive) in specific ecological contexts. Grew from socioecology and sociobiology.
behavior ecology
The study of the relationship between natural selection and behavior. Unlike the approach of behavioral ecology, sociobiological theory does not strongly emphasize ecological facts.
sociobiology
The study of animals and their habitats and attempts to establish patterns of relationship between the external environment and social behavior.
socioecology
Systems of social organization wherein individuals within a group are ranked relative to one another. Higher-ranking individuals have greater access to preferred food items and mating partners than lower-ranking individuals. Dominance hierarchies are sometimes referred to as “pecking orders.”
dominance hierarchies
Any act that conveys information, in the form of a message, to another individual. Frequently, the result of communication is a change in the behavior of the recipient. Communication may not be deliberate but may be the result of involuntary processes or a secondary consequence of an intentional action.
communication
Pertaining to physiological responses not under voluntary control. An example in chimipanzees would be the erection of body hair during excitement. An example in humans is blushing. Both convey information regarding emotional states, but neither is a deliberate behavior, and communication is not intended.
autonomic
Sequence of repetitious behaviors that serve to communicate emotional states. Nonhuman primate displays are most frequently associated with reproductive or agonistic behavior.
displays
Behaviors removed from their original context and sometimes exaggerated to convey information.
ritualized behaviors
Pertaining to amicable associations between individuals. This behavior, such as grooming, reinforce social bonds and promote group cohesion.
affiliative
One of the most important affiliative behaviors in many primate species; picking through fur to remove dirt, parasites, and other materials that may be present. Social grooming is common among primates and reinforces social relationships.
grooming
The complex of behavioral patterns that contributes to individual reproductive success. The behaviors need not be deliberate, and they often vary considerably between males and females.
reproductive strategies
Pertaining to an adaptive strategy whereby individuals produce relatively few offspring, in whom they invest increased parental care. Although only a few infants are born, chances of survival are increased for each individual because of parental investments in time and energy. Examples of nonprimate species are birds and canids (e.g., wolves, coyotes, and dogs).
K-selected
Pertaining to an adaptive strategy that emphasizes relatively large numbers of offspring and reduced parental care (compared to K-selected species). (K-selection and r-selection are relative terms; e.g. mice are r-selected compared to primates but K-selected compared to many fish species.)
R-selected
A type of natural selection that operates on only one sex within a species. It is the result of competition for mates, and it can lead to sexual dimorphism with regard to one or more traits.
sexual selection
A mating system wherein a female continuously associates with more than one male (usually two or three) with whom she mates. Among non-human primates, this pattern is seen only in marmosets and tamarins.
polyandry
A common behavior in many primate species whereby individuals other than the parent(s) hold, carry, and in general interact with infants.
alloparenting