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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
definitional knowledge


TYPE OF WORD KNOWLEDGE
WHAT? knowing a dictionary-like definition for a word

WHY? limits students' understanding because they have difficulty making a connection between the definition of a word and the meaning of the text
contextual knowledge


TYPE OF WORD KNOWLEDGE
WHAT? meaning gained from the context of text (graph, article, picture, explanatory paragraph, prior knowledge, etc.)

WHY? implies a deeper level of understanding but is, at times, difficult for students to make sense of vocabulary in text without a schema or relevant prior knowledge
teaching vocabulary from a context


GUIDELINE FOR TEACHING VOCABULARY EFFECTIVELY
WHAT? words taught in the context of a content area

WHY? allows students to integrate words with previously acquired knowledge
generative processing


GUIDELINE FOR TEACHING VOCABULARY EFFECTIVELY
WHAT? active involvement of the learner

WHY? students understand declarative and procedural requirements of understanding new words and engages them in (1) sensing and inferring relationships between targeted vocabulary and their own, background vocabulary, (2) recognizing and applying vocabulary words to a variety of contexts, (3) recognizing examples and non-examples, (4) generating novel contexts for the targeted word
the "what" and the "how" of vocabulary development


GUIDELINE FOR TEACHING VOCABULARY EFFECTIVELY
WHAT? the "what" focuses on processes involved in knowing a word and the "how" involves students in learning strategies for unlocking words independently

WHY? the "what" enables students to recognize and add words to their repertoire if a teacher teaches words; the "how" enables students to expand their vocabulary continually and read and understand more texts if a teacher teaches independent word-learning strategies
vocabulary reinforcement


GUIDELINE FOR TEACHING VOCABULARY EFFECTIVELY
WHAT? ability to own targeted words in multiple contexts through repeated exposure

WHY? ensures students' reading fluency and understanding of vocabulary and increases the likelihood that students will use these words in various spoken and written contexts

EXAMPLE: to implement, a math teacher does the following with key terms and symbols: (1) discusses them by exploring what students already know about them, (2) previewing how they are used in the textbook, (3) asking students to write them in their journals/notebooks, (4) practicing them through activities and exercises that encourage thinking and writing, (5) reviewing and testing in cumulative fashion
stimulating awareness/interest in words


GUIDELINE FOR TEACHING VOCABULARY EFFECTIVELY
WHAT? increasing students' awareness of words by creating situations in which learning new words is a valuable knowledge-seeking activity through 'modeling'

WHY? students realize vocabulary is a lifelong goal if teachers discuss words they have recently heard (on TV, in newspaper, from others), look up words in the dictionary that they come across that they do not understand, and use essential words when responding to student writing and during class discussions or conversations so that students integrate these words into their own vocabulary; encourages students to take a 'metalinguistic stand on vocabulary' (playing with words and manipulating them)
language-rich word learning environment


GUIDELINE FOR TEACHING VOCABULARY EFFECTIVELY.
WHAT? environment in which new words are learned, celebrated, and used in authentic communication tasks

WHY? if students are given opportunity to experience using words in low-risk situations, to discuss new ideas daily, to talk freely about how text concepts relate to their real-world concerns, to read works in a variety of genres related to concepts, and to write meaningful texts using keywords and concepts, they will build strong expressive and receptive vocabularies
recreational reading


GUIDELINE FOR TEACHING VOCABULARY EFFECTIVELY
WHAT? reading that intrigues, interests, and possibly instills a love for reading by students. It can include texts like newspapers, magazines, short stories, trade books, adolescent novels, etc.

WHY? enhances students' breadth and depth of word knowledge necessary to understand content-area assignments
What are the three tasks involved in word learning?


HOW STUDENTS LEARN NEW WORDS
WHAT? (1) learning a new word for a concept when student understands the concept but has not heard of label for the concept, (2) learning a new concept for a known word, (3) learning a new concept for which student has no label and minimal understanding or background

WHY? gives teachers understanding of the complexity of learning a new word or key concept for a content area
general words


TYPE OF VOCABULARY
WHAT? words not particularly associated with any single content area that could be found in any newspaper or weekly magazine

WHY? forces teachers to select and emphasize the complexity and multiple meanings of words and shows that they are common to many communication situations
technical content-area words


TYPE OF VOCABULARY
WHAT? words unique to a particular subject; general words used in a specialized way and that have only one distinct meaning and application

WHY? emphasizes fact that words take on specialized and unique meanings depending on particular content area
How can teachers effectively decide which terms and concepts to teach?


GUIDELINE FOR SELECTING VOCABULARY TO TEACH
WHAT? teachers should have pre-determined system for selecting appropriate vocabulary terms that will help students better understand key ideas in the unit; teachers should select important terms and concepts that represent the most important ideas

WHY? selecting a few, essential words compensates for time constraints and contributes to students' enhanced understanding of the text itself
contextual analysis


TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO WORD LEARNING
WHAT? understanding the meaning of a word by analyzing the meaning of the words that surround it; figuring out a word by the manner in which it is used in the text

WHY? through modeling , teachers emphasize the metacognitive nature of using context clues; encourage students to use the following steps through modeling: (1) looking at, before, and after the word, (2) reason by connecting what is known based on what the author has written, (3) predict possible meaning, (4) resolve or redo by deciding whether enough is known to proceed or try again using other source
previewing in context


TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO WORD LEARNING
WHAT? teacher-directed activity that relies on modeling and demonstrating to students how word meanings can sometimes be inferred from the context

WHY? modeling how one must go about finding clues to word meanings allows students to see the practical application of this task; modeling includes activating students' prior knowledge of topic and other subjects, emphasizing importance of identifying obvious clues provided and clues within words, showing that context is more than just a few words surrounding an unknown word or sentence in which unknown word appears, and using the dictionary to validate assumptions about the meaning of a word
possible sentences


TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO WORD LEARNING
WHAT? teacher-directed prereading activity that prepares students for technical and general vocabulary they will encounter in a reading assignment

WHY? actively engages students in word learning as they make predictions about content, establish connections between words and concepts, write, discuss, and read their assignments carefully to verify their predictions; modeling includes: identifying general or technical vocabulary that is key to objectives of the unit, asking students to choose a few words and formulate one sentence that may be in the text and sharing with the class, asking students to verify the accuracy of the sentences other students created, and having students create new sentences using the targeted words.
what problems do students encounter when looking words up in the dictionary?


TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO WORD LEARNING
WHAT? students (1) target only a part of the definition and ignore the rest of the entry, (2) find a familiar word in the definition and attempt to substitute it for the unknown word, (3) cannot construct adequate and precise meaning from vague and disjointed fragments provided in dictionary entries

WHY? demonstrates for both teachers and students that the dictionary can be used for solving 'hunches' about words, but is in no way a 'tell all'; should be used in conjunction with personal experiences and textual contexts
morphemic analysis


TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO WORD LEARNING
WHAT? using familiar word parts or morphemes such as prefixes, suffixes, and roots to understand meaning of unknown words

WHY? allows students to discover the meaning of words by breaking them into their meaningful parts; allows students to view it as an independent word-learning strategy
how can vocabulary be taught implicitly through explicit demonstrations?


ACTIVITY THAT ENHANCES WORD KNOWLEDGE
WHAT? allowing students to experience a vocabulary term or key concept firsthand by prompting an engaging activity that taps into their prior knowledge and past experiences

WHY? firsthand concept development encourages students' deeper understanding of concepts and key terms

EXAMPLE: In a lesson on factoring in a mathematics classroom, students are given pictures of different types of foods (fruits, vegetables, dairy products, proteins, carbohydrates, snacks) and are asked to organize foods into groups in whatever manner they feel appropriate. After a class discussion about what types of groups students created with their foods, the teacher explains that students were performing a task similar to 'combining like terms' in mathematics.
Besides teaching students words with an unusual history or origin, what other interesting sources are available that can build their interest in word learning?

ACTIVITY THAT ENHANCES WORD KNOWLEDGE
WHAT? (1) PLACES-words that owe their meaning to a particular place, (2) ACRONYMS-words formed from initial letters of other words, (3) PORTMANTEAU WORDS-words formed by blending portions of one word with another, (4) CLIPS-words formed when they are shortened in length, (5) NAMES OF PEOPLE-words that owe their heritage to famous individuals, (6)BORROWED WORDS FROM OTHER LANGUAGES-words borrowed from other languages and cultures

WHY? tapping into students' interest and being playful with words helps them become actively engaged and committed to acquisition of new words
knowledge rating activity


ACTIVITY THAT ENHANCES WORD KNOWLEDGE
WHAT? activity in which students evaluate their level of knowledge about a set of words by placing each word in one of the following categories: "Don't Know It," "Somewhat Familiar," and "Very Familiar"

WHY? actively involves students in learning new words and concepts; allows teachers to discuss the meaning of words and confusion students may have about them before tackling a lesson/unit including these words
word map


STRATEGY THAT BUILDS VOCABULARY AND COMPREHENSION
WHAT? a map with the following properties: the word to define is located in center box, a brief answer to question "what is it?" in top box, a response to "what is it like?" using words/phrases describing the word's critical attributes, characteristics, or properties in boxes on right-hand side, and answers to "what are some examples?" of the word in bottom boxes

WHY? gives students a strategy for generating word meanings independently and encourages self-monitoring and metacognitive thinking through this test-questioning process; shows students there is more to knowing a word than recognizing and reciting a definition
semantic-feature analysis


STRATEGY THAT BUILDS VOCABULARY AND COMPREHENSION
WHAT? grid in which essential vocabulary is listed on one axis of the grid and major features, characteristics, or important ideas are listed on the other axis; students fill in grid by indicating (possibly by simply placing check marks or number value) the extent to which each essential vocabulary word possesses the stated features, characteristics, or important ideas

WHY? students discover the shared and unique characteristics of vocabulary words; serves as a good review and study guide for a unit of study
concept cards


STRATEGY THAT BUILDS VOCABULARY AND COMPREHENSION
WHAT? similar to flash cards, but contain additional information; the following is included on front of card: (1) targeted word and (2) subordinate idea; the following is included on the back of the card: (1) definition(s), (2) characteristics or features, (3) examples from the text and/or personal experiences, (4) personal sentences, and (5) personal cues, mnemonics, or images (OPTIONAL)

WHY? involves students in learning more than just definitions for difficult terminology; provides for an excellent study tool that can be adapted to fit students' own purposes
word sort (open/closed)


STRATEGY THAT BUILDS VOCABULARY AND COMPREHENSION
WHAT? reinforcement activity that students use with their concept cards or any list of content-area words in which students groups their cards into different categories with common features; in open sorts, students determine their own ways in which cards can be grouped; in closed sorts, students know the categories in which they must place their cards in advance

WHY? engages students in higher levels of thinking and processing; allows students to manipulate their cards in an interesting and flexible manner
imagery strategy


ACTIVITY FOR REINFORCING AND EVALUATING WORD KNOWLEDGE
WHAT? use of mental pictures to help remember what a word means or how it relates to another word or superordinate concept

WHY? powerful tool for reinforcing vocabulary knowledge because students are actively involved in their learning since they create their own, personal images
keyword strategy


ACTIVITY FOR REINFORCING AND EVALUATING WORD KNOWLEDGE
WHAT? use of catchy phrase or sentences that helps in remembering a particular word

WHY? powerful tool for reinforcing vocabulary knowledge because students are actively involved in their learning since they create their own, catchy phrases
statement plus a request activity


ACTIVITY FOR REINFORCING AND EVALUATING WORD KNOWLEDGE
WHAT? activity in which students read two related statements, each containing the same targeted word; second sentence asks students to demonstrate their knowledge of the word by exceeding simple definition (may come in the form of a question)

WHY? involves students in active and elaborative thinking processes by challenging them to demonstrate a full understanding of words
exclusion


ACTIVITY FOR REINFORCING AND EVALUATING WORD KNOWLEDGE
WHAT? activity that requires students to discriminate between, negate, and recognize examples and non-examples

WHY? involves students in active and elaborative thinking processes by challenging them to demonstrate a full understanding of concepts
paired word questions


ACTIVITY FOR REINFORCING AND EVALUATING WORD KNOWLEDGE
WHAT? activity that includes a sentence containing two, paired targeted words that students must derive/come to an understanding of and then determine if any relationship exists between them

WHY? involves students in active and elaborative thinking processes by challenging them to demonstrate a full understanding of words
sensing the big picture


ACTIVITY FOR REINFORCING AND EVALUATING WORD KNOWLEDGE
WHAT? activity in which students are given a set of words or phrases and must select which of them subsumes all the other words or phrases

WHY? students are able to discriminate the difference between a major concept and a detail or supporting idea
analogies


ACTIVITY FOR REINFORCING AND EVALUATING WORD KNOWLEDGE
WHAT? activity in which students must identify the similarity or difference between a pair of words and then given a third word, must find a final word that demonstrates the same relationship with the third word as the first pair of words

WHY? involves students in knowing synonyms and antonyms of important words and encourages them to sense relationships between words in a variety of ways
paired word sentence generation


ACTIVITY FOR REINFORCING AND EVALUATING WORD KNOWLEDGE
WHAT? activity in which students are given two paired words that share some relationship and must write a sentence that utilizes the words correctly

WHY? demonstrates students' conceptual understanding of words and their relationship;
MY REFLECTION
Acquiring word knowledge is significant in order to become literate in any given content area. Students must realize the complex nature of words and understand that they can take on different meanings in different contexts and content areas. By participating in teacher-directed (possible sentences, previewing in context) and independent (word maps, semantic-feature analysis, imagery strategy, open word sorts) word learning activities, students will have a greater chance of owning more words and utilizing them and making them a part of their everyday language. An activity that was particularly interesting to me in this chapter was the 'interesting word origins' activity. An extension of this activity was described in one of my note cards and includes places, acronyms, names of people, clips, etc. I feel that this activity not only engages students in the surface meaning of the word, but also the true and interesting background knowledge of it. For example, in mathematics, it is useful for students to understand that Pythagoras formulated the Pythagorean Theorem as this can lead into a discussion of how the theorem was derived and with what intentions. This gives students not only a greater insight into the content area but also a better appreciation and, hopefully, interest in it. Generally, it is important for students to realize that truly owning a word does not simply mean knowing its dictionary definition. Similarly, in acquiring knowledge of a word, students have the opportunity to engage in several activities and practice various strategies that go beyond just glancing in the dictionary for its meaning.