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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behaviors of its members
Norms
more serious, moral issue norms
Mores
norms formerly created through a society's political system
Law
civil law and criminal law
types of law
defines legal rights and relationships involving individuals and businesses, involves harms leading to a financial settlement
civil law
defines people's responsibilities to uphold public order, involves arrest and punishment
criminal law
violation of the criminal laws enacted by federal, state, or local governments
Crime
misdemeanors and felonies
types of crime
less serious crimes punishable by less than one year in jail
misdemeanors
more serious cromes punishable by at least one year in prison
felonies
number of police recorded serious crimes each year
12 million
the high numver of crimes and extensive media coverage has led to this becoming a social problem as well
fear of crime
ways to measure crime
UCR, NIBRS, NCVS, and self-report questionnaires
conducted annually by the FBI, participation is voluntary, little info. on individual crime, criminal, or victim
Uniform Crime Report
crime that involves violence or the threat of violence against others
Part I - Crimes against persons
crime the involves theft of property belonging to others
Part I - Crimes against property
contain most other "lesser" crimes, usually consist of a state count
Part II offenses
only the most serious crimes are counted
hierarchy rule
developed to address the limitations of the UCR, joint effor of the FBI and the Bureau of Justice Statistics
National Incident-Based Reporting System
conducted annually and surveys people about their victimization of the previous year, shows that there could be 2 to 3 times as much crime than recorded
National Crime Victimization Survey
surveys given to known offenders asking about their criminal activity, shows that there's a lot that people don't get caught for doing
Self-report Questionnaires
the carnal knowledge of a femle forcibly and against her will
rape
costs $17 billion a year in losses
property crime
most common of UCR Part I crimes
larceny-theft
age of criminals
mostly under 25
gender of criminals
men
social class of criminals
lower
race of criminals
more whites but higher risk for blacks
violation of the law by young people
juvenile delinquency
criminal offense against a person, property, or society motivated by the offender's bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity
hate crime
illegal act committed by peopole during the course of their employment or regular business activities, offender is not labeled a criminal
white-collar crime
costs of white-collar crime
$100 billion
illegal act committed by a corporation or others acting on its behalf
corporate crime
knowingly producing faulty or dangerous products
gross negligence
business operation that supplies illegal goods and services
organized crime
passed to help fight organized crime, allowing authorities to seize property and assets used or acquired in the commission of crime
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act (RICO)
offenses that directly harm no one but the person who commits them, violate widespread norms
victimless crime
society's organized means to enforce the law through the use of police, courts, and prisons
criminal justice system
number of police officers in the US
665,000
6 factors that guide police
How serious is crime, what does victim want, is suspect cooperative, does suspect have a record, bystanders watching, suspect's race
involves officers being more visible in a community, getting to know the local neighborhood
commuting policing
policy by which police respond to any offense, regardless of the 6 factors noted earlier
zero tolerance policing
how many arrested suspects are released for lack of evidence
1/2
negotiation in which the state reduces defendant's charge in exchange for a guilty plea, how 90% of cases end up
plea bargaining
4 goals of punishment
retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, societal protection
moral vengeance by which society inflicts suffering on an offender comparable to that caused by the offense
retribution
using punishment to discourage further crime
deterrence
individual is discouraged from future crime
specific deterrence
everyone is taught a lesson by what happened to the individual
general deterrence
reforming the offender to prevent future offenses
rehabilitation
protecting the public by rendering an offender incapable fo further offenses through incarceration or by execution
societal protection
subsequent offesnes by people previously convicted of crimes
criminal recidivism
correctional programs located in society at large rather than behind prison walls
community-based corrections
a powerful negative social label that radically changes a person's self-concept and social identity
stigma
supervision within the community following conditions such as drug treatment, curfews, employment, etc.
probation
brief term in jail, followd by probation
shock probation incarceration
releasing inmates early to be supervised in the community, has been scaled back
parole
studied physical features of men in prison and concluded that they were physically different, but had no control group
Cesare Lombroso
looked at both criminals and non-criminals and found differences in body types, criminals were mesomorphs
William Sheldon
supported Sheldon's results but believed that it wasn't body type alone, mesomorphs are more socialized to be bullies
Gluecks
investigated abnormal personalities in terms of a boy's moral conscience, asked teachers to identify boys as deliquent and non-delinquent and interviewed the boy and mother
Reckless and Dinitz
argued that if crime exists everywhere it must be useful, functionalist
Emile Durkheim
4 ways crime is useful
affirms society's norms, clarify line btw right and wrong, brings people together, encourages social change
developed strain theory, functionalist
robert merton
developed opportunity structure, becoming a criminal depends on presence of illegitimate opportunity
Cloward and Ohlin
developed control theory, asks why doesn't everyone engage in crime
travis hirschi
crime is discouraged with social ties, these are the four kinds, functionalist
attachment to others, committed to conformity, involved in conventional activities, belief in rightness of cultural norms
developed differential association theory, when deviant behaviors are encouraged, they are likely to occur, interactionism
Edwin Sutherland
developed labeling theory, crime results from how others respond to what people do, interactionism
Howard Becker
developed primary and secondary deviance, when actions are responded to negatively the person will take on the new status as a deviant, interactionism
Edwin Lemert
developed the power of stigma, interactionism
Erving Goffman
any chemical substance other than food or water that affects the mind or body
drug
drug uses
therapeutic,recreational, escape, spiritual, or social conformity
use of any illegal substance or the use of a legal substance in a way that violates accepted medical practice
drug abuse
physical or psychological craving for a drug, often involving withdrawal symptoms
addiction
state in which a person’s body has adjusted to regular use of a drug
dependency
elevate alertness, changing a person’s mood by increasing energy, Caffeine, Nicotine, Cocaine and Crack, Amphetamines, Ritalin
Stimulants
slow the operations of the central nervous system, Analgesics, Sedatives, Hypnotics, Alcohol, Antipsychotics
depressants
stopping the movement of drugs across the countries borders
interdiction
locking up drug dealers
prosecution
removing the current criminal penalties that punish the manufacturing, sale, and personal use of drugs
decriminalization
regulate drug use,drugs help society operates by easing social interaction or helping people deal with daily demands
functionalism
• Becoming a drug user is a learning process, just like becoming anything else, where progress depends on numerous personal, social, and environmental influences
symbolic interaction
drug regulation is just another avenue for the powerful to enforce and protect their interests
social conflict
behavior that causes damage to property or injury to people
violence
violence carried out by government representatives under the law
Institutional violence
violence directed against the government in violation of the law
Anti-institutional violence
doesn't cause violence but desensitizes us to it
violent media