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150 Cards in this Set

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The SI unit for energy and work
joule
The ability to do work. It is a positive scalar quantity measured in joules.
energy
the energy of a system due to its position or condition; a form of mechanical energy.
potential energy
the energy of motion which depends only on the system's mass and speed; a form of mechanical energy.
kinetic energy
what are the two forms of mechanical energy discussed in ch 6?
potential and kinetic energy
The energy of a system due to its position or its motion.
mechanical energy
the potential energy of a system due to its weight and its height above a zero reference height.
gravitational potential energy
The potential energy of a system due to an elastic force acting on it and its distance from a zero reference position.
elastic potential energy
A variable force exerted by an elastic object that increases in proportion to the object's deformation from its relaxed state; the source of elastic potential energy.
elastic force
what are some examples of an elastic force?
a spring
a rubber band
the sum of the kinetic energies of all the particles in an object, directly proportional to the temperature of the object.
thermal energy
The transmission of energy through matter by the periodic motion of particles (mechanical waves).
acoustic energy
Recurring back-and-forth or cyclical motion of a system in a regular time interval, called a period.
periodic motion
The ability to do work through the action of the electromagnetic force on and by electrical charges.
electrical energy
the ability of a magnetic field to do work on magnetic objects and on moving electrical charges.
electrical energy
the ability of a magnetic field to do work on magnetic objects and on moving electrical charges.
magnetic energy
The combined action of electrical and magnetic energies in the form of wavelike, radiant energy.
electromagnetic/radiant energy
The potential energy stored in the chemical bonds between atoms that is released or absorbed during chemical reactions.
chemical energy
The potential energy stored in an atom's nucleus that is released or absorbed when an atom experiences nuclear fission or fusion.
nuclear energy
The energy equivalent to matter itself, according to the equation in Einstein's theory of relativity, E=mc sq
mass energy
For a machine or process, the ratio of energy or work produced to the energy or work present beforehand; a measure of the effectiveness of the machine or process for converting energy from one form to another.
efficiency
Law stating that the total amount of energy entering the process equals the total of all the forms of energy that exist at the end of the process.
Law of conservation of energy/ first law of thermodynamics
What is the law of the conservation of energy also called?
The first law of thermodynamics
Law stating that energy and matter cannot be created nor destroyed, only changed in form.
First law of thermodynamics/ law of conservation of energy
A collision between two objects in which momentum is conserved but some of their kinetic energies is lost to other forms of energy during the collision. The object is slightly deformed but rebound.
partially elastic collision
A collision between two objects in which the deformation is so severe that they stick together. While total momentum is conserved, total kinetic energy is greatly reduced by the amount of energy required to deform the objects.
inelastic collision
Matter is everything that has ________ and occupies space.
mass
Mass is the quantity of ________ in an object.
matter
Is everything matter?
no
What are some examples of non-matter?
light
heat
radio waves
tv signals
If something isn't matter, what must it be?
a form of energy
What is energy?
Energy is not a substance; it is an ability.

It is the ability to do work
Work is done when a force moves an object through a ________.
distance
What is the formula for work?
w=fd
What was Joule motivated by?
theological beliefs
What did Joule begin attempting to demonstrate?
the unity of forces of nature
Work is the application of a ________ over a physical ________.
force
distance
What are the two main categories of energy?
potential energy
kinetic energy
Any form of energy can either be ________ or ________. Potential energy is ________ energy (at rest/ in motion).
stored
at rest
What are some examples of potential energy?
electrical battery
tank full of gas
cereal waiting for someone to eat it
What is kinetic energy?
energy in motion
What are some examples of kinetic energy?
a moving vehicle, a moving muscle, a burning log
What does the Law of Conservation of energy state?
Energy can be changed from one form to another but it can never be created or destroyed
What is the Law of Conservation of energy also know as?
The 1st law of thermodynamics.
Energy is ________ to mass or matter.
proportional
What are 7 ways to classify energy (our textbook lists 9).
mechanical
acoustic
magnetic
chemical
mass
thermal
electrical
radiant
nuclear
What is the formula for potential energy? and what do each of the letters mean.
m x g x h
m-mass
g-gravity
h-height
What is the formula for kinetic energy and what do the letters mean? What are the letter's units?
1/2 mv sq
m-mass (in kg)
v-velocity (in m/s)
What are the units for kinetic and potential energy?
the joule
Mechanical energy is...
The energy of a system due to its position or its motion
When does potential energy exist?
When a force acting on an object has the potential to move it.
Potential energy is proportional to ________ and ________.
force
distance
What kind of energy is kinetic energy?
mechanical
What model of matter states that matter consists of innumerable tiny particles in constant, random, motion?
the kinetic molecular model
What kind of energy is the sum of the kinetic energies of all the particles in an object?
thermal
Although we cannot currently measure the total kinetic energy of particles, we can measure the ________ of Thermal energy.
changes
Changes of thermal energy are indicated by changes in _________.
temperature
What is an example of thermal energy?
the earth's water cycle
Acoustic energy can also be called...
sound energy
What is acoustic energy?
energy that is produced by vibrating matter and transmitted through a medium.
Sound can only travel through: ________, ________, or ________.
solids
liquids
or gases
Are the useful sources of electrical energy natural or man made?
man made
What is mechanical energy?
energy stored in a magnet and its surrounding field.
What is radiant energy?
energy propagated in the form of electromagnetic waves.
What is another name for radiant energy?
electromagnetic energy
What are some examples for radiant energy?
radio waves
microwaves
infrared waves
visible light waves
ultraviolet light waves
x rays
gamma waves
What is chemical energy?
The potential energy that is stored in the positions of electrons in an atom.
Plants change energy of the ________ into ________ energy by a process called ________.
sun
chemical
photosynthesis
What is nuclear energy?
Energy that is stored in the nucleus of an atom.
What is the "missing" mass called?
the mass defect
How does this missing mass appear as?
radiant energy and neutrons
What is mass energy?
The energy equivalent to matter.
The buoyant force exerted on a body in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.
Archimedes's principle
A device used to measure atmospheric pressure.
Barometer
States that the pressure of a fluid decreases as its speed increases.
Bernoulli's principle
An upward push on matter exerted by a fluid.
Buoyant force
Which/Whose law states that: The volume of a gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature.
Charles' law
The mass in a unit of volume
Density
The study of fluid movement and forces.
fluid mechanics
Liquid or gas phases of matter.
fluids
The state of matter in which the disruptive forces completely overcome the attractive forces, allowing particles unlimited movement.
gas
Force exerted on a unit of area by gas particles colliding with a surface.
Gas pressure
Machines which use fluids to transmit and/or increase force.
Hydraulic machines
The basic unit of temperature in the metric system.
kelvin
A temperature scale that begins at absolute zero.
kelvin scale
The state of matter in which the attractive forces and the disruptive forces are balanced, allowing particles limited movement.
liquid
Unit of pressure equal to one Newton of force over a square meter
Pascal
What/Whose principle states that: Changes in pressure in a confined fluid are distributed equally in all directions throughout the fluid.
Pascal's principle
The force pushing directly on a given surface
pressure
The ratio of a substance's density to water density; a unit-less quantity numerically equal to the density of the substance.
Specific gravity
Whose principle states that in a fluid at rest in a closed container a pressure change in one part is transmitted without loss to every portion of the fluid to the walls of the container.
Pascal's
Machines that use fluids to transmit and/or increase force are called ___________ machines.
hydraulic
(T/F) Objects immersed in a fluid weigh less than they do out of water.
T
Provide the missing dividend for this equation:
specific gravity = ?________? divided by (weight in air - weight in water)
relative density
(T/F) Objects in water will sink if their density is less than the density of water.
F
Explain the fluid principle behind the "drinking through a straw" principle.
"fluids move from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure."
Whose principle is used to explain the "lift" on an airplane's wing?
Bernoulli's principle
(T/F) The volume of a gas is directly proportional to pressure at a constant temperature.
F
(T/F) The volume of a gas is directly proportional to temperature at a constant pressure.
T
The water pressure exerted on a person in a swimming pool is directly related to their _______.
depth
Whose principle helped to explain why battle ships float and the king's crown was counterfeit?
Archimedes
Fluids include both _____ and _____.
gases
liquids
________ ________ is the study of fluids and their forces.
fluid mechanics
Explain how a fluid causes pressure.
They create an upward force that acts against the force of gravity on an immersed part of an object.
What is the formula for pressure and what do the variables stand for?
P=F/A
P=pressure
F=total net force
A=total surface area
The units for pressure are N/m sq or the _______.
pascal
A person can lie on a "bed of nails" without being injured. Why? Would the person be injured if they stood on the bed of nails? Why or why not?
The person can lie on the bed of nails because there is a lot of surface area with which to distribute the force/pressure. They would be injured if they tried to stand up because the surface area would then decrease-hence the force/pressure would increase.
Why does having your toe stepped on by the heel of a high heel shoe hurt more than it would with a regular heel?
Even though you would still experience the same amount of force, because the high heel has a smaller surface area, the pressure is greater.
Fluids have weight. Each particle of gas or liquid has mass that is acted upon by ________.
gravity
Since pressure results from particles exerting forces in all directions, pressure ________ in all directions as well.
exerts
Pascal's principle: changes in pressure in a confined fluid are distributed ________ in ________ directions throughout the fluid.
equally
all
The machines which use fluids to transmit and/or increase force are called __________ machines.
hydraulic
Archimedes' Principle: An immersed object is buoyed up by a force _____ to the _____ of the fluid displaced.
equal
weight
What are some examples of Archimedes' Principle?
balloons
big ships
Fluids move from areas of _____ pressure to areas of _____ pressure.
high
low
Bernoulli's principle: the pressure of a fluid ______ as its speed ______.
increases
decreases
Boyle's law: the ______ of a dry gas is inversely proportional to the pressure (assumes the temp remains constant)
volume
What is the formula for Boyle's law?
P1V1=P2V2
Charles' Law: the volume of a dry gas is proportional to the ______ (assumes the pressure remains constant)
temperature
Describe how an airplane can fly.
The wing's motion through the air creates a downward force in the air above the wing. This force diverts large quantities of air from above the wing downward.
Why does the tire on your bike seem to go down, or appear to have lost air during the winter?
Charles's law is illustrated here: there is a downward temperature change and consequently a downward pressure change too. The loss of pressure causes the tires to loose air.
How does one of those big aircraft carriers actually float?
Its density is less than that of the water.
Fluids include:
a. gases
b. liquids
c. gases and liquids
d. neither gases nor liquids
c. gases and liquids
Pascal's principle: changes in pressure in a confined fluid are distributed _____ in _____ directions throughout the fluid.
a. equally, some
b. equally, all
c. unequally, some
d. unequally, all
b. equally, all
Archimedes' Principle: An immersed object is buoyed up by a force equal to the _____ of the fluid displaced.
a. volume
b. density
c. weight
d. mass
c. weight
Fluids move from areas of _____ pressure to areas of _____ pressure.
a. low, high
b. mixed, stable
c. stable, mixed
d. high, low
d. high, low
The units for pressure include the following:
a. N
b. N/m sq
c. Pascal
d. a and c
e. b and c
e. b and c (N/m sq and Pa)
_____ and _____ freely flow to assume the ______ of the container.
liquids
gases
shape
What is fluid mechanics the study of?
fluids and their forces
What are the states of matter?
solids
liquids
gas
Particles in a fluid are in _____ motion in _____ directions.
constant
all
Gas molecules bump into _____ and into the _____ of the container.
each other
walls
The force particles exert upon an area is called ________.
pressure
Pressure is defined as the _____ pushing directly on a _____.
force
surface
What is the formula for pressure?
What are the units for each part in this formula?
P=F/A
Force is in newtons
area is in meters sq
What is the SI unit for pressure?
the Pascal
What other unit is one PA equal to?
1 N/m sq
What is another unit for pressure?
the bar/millibar
Who uses the bar/millibar?
meteorologists
Greater depths of fluid have greater _____.
pressure
Fluids have _____ and the mass of a fluid is acted on by _____.
weight
gravity
Since pressure results from _____ exerting _____ in all directions, pressure acts in _____ directions as well.
particles
force
all
What is another name for pascal's principle?
pascal's law
_____ in pressure in a confined fluid are distributed _____ in all directions throughout the fluid.
changes
equally
In a fluid at rest in a (closed/open) container a pressure _____ in one part is transmitted (with/without) loss to every portion of the fluid and to the ____ of the container.
closed
change
without
walls
The properties of fluids revealed in Pascal's principle makes fluids a (useful/un-useful) tool for transmitting _____ from one area to another.
useful
force
What are Hydraulic Machines?
Machines which use fluids to transmit and/or increase force.
The primary function of a hydraulic system is to....
transmit force through a confined fluid from one location to another.
What is another useful function of fluid power?
it is capable of multiplying the force applied.
The multiplication of _____ by a hydraulic system is made possible by using a(n) _____ piston that is (larger/smaller) than the _____ piston.
force
output
larger
input