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35 Cards in this Set

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gamete
Haploid Cell that participates in fertilization by fusing with another haploid cell
Binary Fission
Form of asexual reproduction that produces identical offspring
gene
section of the chromosome that codes for a protein or RNA molecule
chromosome
structure made of DNA and associated proteins on which genes are located
Chromatid
one pair of strands of DNA that make up a chromosome during Meiosis or
Mitosis
Process during cell division in which the nucleus of a cell divides in two nuclei, each with the same number and kind of chromosomes
Centromere
region joining two Chromatids
Homologous Chromosome
a member of a chromosome pair, both of which are similar in shape, size, and the genes they carry
Diploid
Term used to indicate a cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent
Haploid
having only one set of chromosomes
Zygote
fertilized egg cell
Autosome
a chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex
Sex Chromosome
one of a pair of chromosomes that are involved in determining the sex of an individual
Karyotope
array of the chromosomes found in an individual’s cells arranged in order of size and shape
Cell Cycle
repeating five – phase sequence of eukaryotic cell growth and division
Interphase
period between two mitotic or meiotic division of a eukaryotic cell during which the cell carries out routine functioning, copies its DNA, and prepares to divide
Mitosis
Process during cell division in which the nucleus of a cell divides into two nuclei, each with the same number, and kind of chromosome
Cytokinesis
of the cytoplasm to from two separate cells
Cancer
a disease characterized by normal cell growth
Spindle
structure composed of centrioles and individual hollow protein fibers that moves chromosomes apart during cell division
Meiosis
Process during cell division in which the nucleus of a cell completes two successive divisions that produce four cells (gametes), each with a chromosome number that had been reduced by half
Crossing Over
The exchange of reciprocal segments of DNA by homologous chromosomes at the beginning of meiosis: source of genetic recombination
Independent Assortment
Random distribution of homologous chromosomes during meiosis
Spermatogenesis
Process by which gametes are produced in male animals
Sperm
Male gamete
Oogenesis
Process by which gametes are produced in female animals
Ovum
mature egg cell
Asexual Reproduction
reproduction that involves only one parent and results in genetically identical offspring
Clone
organism produced by asexual reproduction that is genetically identical to its parent
Sexual Reproduction
Reproduction in which gametes from opposite sexes or mating types unite to from a zygote
Life Cycle
Entire lifespan of an organism; summary of all of the stages of an organism
Fertilization
the process by which haploid gametes join to form a diploid zygote
Sporophyte
diploid phase in the type of life cycle known as alternation generation; diploids individual that produces spores
Spore
an asexual, resting, reproductive haploid cell
Gametophyte
Haploid phase in the type of life cycle known as alteration of generation; haploid individual that produces gametes