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117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
blast/o, -blast
germ or bud
chrom/o, chromat/o
color
chyl/o
juice
hem/o, hemat/o
blood
immun/o
safe
lymph/o
clear fluid
morph/o
form
phag/o
eat or swallow
plas/o
formation
reticul/o
a net
splen/o
spleen
thromb/o
clot
thym/o
thymus gland
plasma
liquid portion of the blood and lymph containing water, proteins, and cellular components
serum
liquid portion of the blood after clotting
erythrocyte
red blood cells, used to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
hemoglobin
protein-iron compound contained in erythrocytes that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
leukocyte
white blood cell, which protects the body from invading harmful substances
granulocytes
a group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm
neutrophil
a granular leukocyte, named for the neutral stain of its granules, that fights infection by swallowing bacteria
polymorpho-nuclear leukocyte
another term for neutrophil, named for the many segments present in its nucleus
band
an immature neutrophil
eosinophil
a granular leukocyte, named for the rose-colored stain of its granules, that increases in allergic and some infectious reactions
basophil
a granular leukocyte, named for the dark stain of its granules, that brings anticoagulant substances to inflamed tissues
agranulocytes
a group of leukocytes without granules in their nuclei
lymphocyte
an agranulocytic leukocyte active in the process of immunity, the three categories are T cells, B cells, and NK cells
monocyte
an agranulocytic leukocyte that performs phagocytosis to fight infection
platelets
thrombocytes, cell fragments in the blood essential for blood clotting
thymus
primary gland of the lymphatic system, located within the mediastinum, that helps maintain the body’s immune response by producing T lymphocytes
spleen
organ between the stomach and the diaphragm that filters out aging blood cells, removes cellular debris by performing phagocytosis, and provides an environment for lymphcytes to initiate immune responses
lymph
fluid circulated through the lymph vessels
lymph capillaries
microscopic vessels that draw lymph from tissues to the lymph vessels
lacteals
specialized lymph vessels in the small intestine that absorbs fat into the bloodstream
chyle
white pale yellow substance in lymph that contains fatty substances absorbed by the lacteals
lymph nodes
several small, oval structures that filter lymph from the lymph vessels; major locations include the cervical, axillary and inguinal regions
lymph ducts
collecting channels that carry lymph from the lymph nodes to the veins
right lymphatic duct
receives lymph from the right upper part of the body
thoracic duct
receives lymph from the left side of the head, neck, chest, abdomen, left arm, and lower extremities
immunity
process of disease protection induced by exposure to an antigen
antigen
a substance that, when introduced into the body, causes formation of antibodies against it
antibody
a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body
active immunity
an immunity that protects the body against a future infection, as the result of antibodies that develop naturally in the response to an infection or artificially after administration of a vaccine
passive immunity
an immunity resulting from antibodies that are conveyed naturally through the placenta to a fetus or artificially by injection of a serum containing antibodies
anisocytosis
presence of red blood cells of unequal size
pancytopenia
an abnormal reduced number of all cellular components in the blood
erythropenia
an abnormally reduced number of red blood cells
hemolysis
breakdown of the red blood cell membrane
immunocompromised
impaired immunologic defense caused by an immunodeficiency disorder or therapy with immunosuppressive agents
immunosuppression
impaired ability to provide an immune response
lymphadenopathy
enlarged (diseased) lymph nodes
lymphocytopenia
an abnormally reduced number of lymphocytes
macrocytosis
presence of large red blood cells
microcytosis
presence of small red blood cells
neutropenia
decrease in the number of neutophils
poikilocytosis
presence of large, irregularly shaped red blood cells
reticulocytosis
increased number of immature erythrocytes in the blood
splenomegaly
enlargement of the spleen
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
a syndrome caused by the human HIV that renders immune cells ineffective permitting opportunistic infections
anemia
a condition of reduced numbers of red blood cells
iron deficiency
a microcytic-hypochromic type of anemia characterized by a lack of iron, affecting production of hemoglobin and small red blood cells containing low amounts of hemoglobin
pernicious anemia
a macrocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by an inadequate supply of vitamin b12, causing red blood cells to become large, varied in shape, and reduced in number
aplastic anemia
a normocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by the failure of bone marrow to produce red blood cells
erythoblastosis
a disorder that results from the incompatibility of a fetus with Rh-positive blood and a mother with Rh-negative blood, causing red blood cell destruction in the fetus; a blood transfusion is necessary to save the fetus
Rh factor
the presence or lack of antigens on the surface of red blood cells, which causes a reaction between Rh-positive blood and Rh-negative blood
Rh positive
presence of antigens
Rh negative
absence of antigens
hemochromatosis
hereditary disorder with and extensive buildup of iron deposits in the body
hemophilia
group of hereditary bleeding disorders with a defect in the clotting factors necessary for coagulation of blood
leukemia
chronic or acute malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, marked by abnormal leukocytes in the blood and bone marrow
myelodysplasia
disorder within the bone marrow characterized by a proliferation of abnormal stem cells; usually develops into a specific type of leukemia
lymphoma
any neoplastic disorder of lymph tissue, usually malignant, as in hodgkins disease
metastasis
process by which cancer cells are spread by blood or lymph circulation to a distant organ
mononucleosis
viral condition characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells in the blood along with enlarged lymph nodes, fatigue and sore throat
polycythemia
increased number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood
septicemia
systemic disease caused by the infection of microorganisms and their toxins in circulating blood
thrombocytopenia
bleeding disorder characterized by an abnormally decreased number of platelets in the blood, impairing the clotting process
blood indices
calculations of RBC, HGB, and HCT results to determine the average size, hemoglobin concentration, and content of red blood cells to classify an anemia
mean corpuscular (cell) volume (MCV)
calculation of the volume of the individual cells in the cubic microns using HCT and RBC results: MCV = HCT/RBC
mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin (MCH)
calculation of the content in weight of hemoglobin in the average red blood cell using HGB and RBC results: MCH = HGB/RBC
mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin concentration MCHC
calculation of the average hemoglobin concentration in each red blood cell using HGB and HCT results: MCHC = HGB/HCT
differential count
determination of the number of each type of white blood cell in a stained blood smear; each type is counted and reported as a percentage of the total examined
red cell morphology
as part of identifying and counting the WBCs, the condition, size, and shape or red blood cells in the background of the smeared slide are noted
platelet count (PLT)
calculation of the number of thrombocytes in the blood
bone marrow aspiration
needle aspiration of bone marrow tissue for pathologic examination
lymphangiogram
an x-ray of a lymph node or vessel taken after injection of a contrast medium
phlebotomy, venipuncture
incision into or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing
blood chemistry
test of the fluid portion of blood to measure amounts of chemical constituents
blood chemistry panels
specialized batteries of automated blood chemistry tests performed on a single sample of blood; used as a general screen for disease or to target specific organs or conditions
basic metabolic panel
battery tests used as a general screen for disease
comprehensive metabolic panel
tests in addition to basic panel for expanded screening purpose
blood culture
test to diagnose an infection in the bloodstream, by culturing a specimen of blood to encourage the growth of microorganisms, which are then identified
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
timed test that measures the rate at which red blood cells settle though a volume of plasma
partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
test to determine coagulation defects, such as platelet disorders
thromboplastin
substance present in tissues, platelets, and leukocytes that is necessary for coagulation
prothrombin time
test to measure activity of prothrombin in the blood
prothrombin
protein substance in the blood that is essential to the clotting process
complete blood count (CBC)
common blood test performed as a screen of general health or for diagnosis
white blood count (WBC)
a count of the number of white blood cells per cubic millimeter
red blood count (RBC)
a count of the number of red blood cells per cubic millimeter
hematocrit (HCT)
a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood
bone marrow transplant
transplantation of healthy bone marrow from a compatible donor to a diseased recipient to stimulate blood cell production
lymphadenectomy
removal of a lymph node
lymphadenotomy
incision into a lymph node
lymph node dissection
removal of possible cancer-carrying lymph nodes for pathologic examination
splenectomy
removal of the spleen
thymectomy
removal of the thymus gland
blood transfusion
introduction of blood products into the circulation of a recipient whose blood volume is reduced or deficient in some manner
autologous blood
blood donated by and stored for a patient for future personal use
homologous blood
blood voluntarily donated by any person for transfusion to a compatible recipient
blood component thereby
transfusion of a specific blood component
crossmatching
a method of matching a donors blood to the recipient by mixing a sample in a test tube to determine compatibility
chemotherapy
treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents to destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
plasmapheresis
removal of plasma from the body with separation and extraction of specific elements followed by re-infusion
anticoagulant
a drug that prevents clotting of the blood
hemostatic
a drug that stops the flow of blood within the vessels
vasoconstrictor
a drug that causes a narrowing of blood vessels, thereby decreasing blood flow
vasodilator
a drug that causes dilation of blood vessels, thereby increasing blood flow