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48 Cards in this Set

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one of the 14 elements with atomic numbers from 90 (thorium, Th) through 103(lawrencium, Lr)
actinide
one of the 14 elements with atomic numbers from 58 ( cerum) to 71 eutetium, li
lanthanides
the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
periodic law
an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties fal in the same column or group
periodic table
one of the elements of Group 1 of the periodic table ( lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium , cesium, francium)
alkali metals
one of the elemnts of Groups 2 of the periodic table
alkaline earth metals
one of the elements of Group 17
halogen
an element in the sblock or p block
main group elements
one of the dblock elements that is a metal with typical metallic properties
transition element
a negative ion
anion
one half the distance between the nuclei of identical atoms that are bonded together
atomic radiu
a positive ion
cation
the energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom
electron affinity
a measure of thee ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
electronegativity
an atom of group of bonded atoms that have a positive or negative charge
ion
ionization
the formation of ions from solute molecules by the action of the solvent; any process that results in the formation of anions
ionization energy
the energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom of an elemetn
valence electrons
an electron that is available to be lost gained or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
created a periodic table of the elemnts according to increasing atomic mass
- was able to predict the existnec of and prop of undiscovered eelements
-a few didn't fit in w/ the right group
Dmitri Mendeleev
arranged the periodic table according to increasing atomic number
henry moseley
the physical and chemical properties of the elemts are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
periodic law
an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties fall in the same column
periodic table
the veritcal columns of elements in the periodic table that have similar physical and chemical properties
group(family)
the horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table that have the same number of principal energy levels
period
period length (row) is determined by ___
electron configuration
number of electrons per period
2, 8, 8, 18, 18, 32, 23
metlas found in groups 1 and 2
s block
silvery appearance, soft, 1 e- in outer s orbital, extremely reactive
alkali metals
2e- in outer s orharder denser and stronger than alkali metals, reactive but less than group 1
alkaline earth metals
unique properties, sometimes included iwth the group 1e- in 1s level, has nonmetal properties does not act like group 1, not part of sblock
hydrogen
found in group 18 rather than 2 because it is stable,
not part of s or p block
is a noble gas
helium
d orbitals filled
transition metals( malleable and ductile)
typical metallic properties
less reactive
d block 3-12
p orbitals filled
wide variety of properties
p block 13-18
most reactive nonmetals
react vigorously with metlas to produce salts
halogens 17
least reactive of all elements
fill highest main energy level
noble gases 18
p block together with s block elements
main group elements
lanthanides and actinides
f orbitals filling
f block
decrease because higher energy levels put electrons further from the pull of the nucleus
group trend
negative ions, nonmetals
gain e-
high ionization enrgy
positive ions, metals
give e-
low ionizations metals
the enrgy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom
electron affinity
A+ e- ----> A- + energy
exothermic (release)
A+ e- + energy ---> A-
endothermic ( absorb)
period trend/group trend of electron affinity
increase because of increasing nuclear charge- period trend
generally decrease- group trend
measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
electronegativity
periodic trend- increase
group trend - decrease
cation
positive ions lose e-
anion
negative ions gain e-
ionic radii perio and group trend
periodic trend- metals decrease, previous energy level
non metals- larger radii but decrease, grater charge
group trend increases