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164 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
adipo, lipo, steato
fat
dermo, dermato, cutaneo
skin
erythro
red
hidro
sweat
histo, histio
tissue
ichthyo
fish
kerato, sclera
hard
leuko
white
melano
black
myco
fungus
onycho
nail
plaso
formation
purpuro
purple
sebo
sebum, oil
squamo
scale
tricho
hair
xantho
yellow
xero
dry
epithelium
cells covering the external & internal surfaces of the body
epidermis
thin, cellular outer layer of the skin
squamous cell layer
flat, scale-like epithelial cells comprising the outermost layers of the epidermis (epidermis)
basal layer
deepest regions of the epidermis (epidermis)
melanocyte
a cell found in the basal layer that gives color to the skin
melanin
dark brown to black pigment contained in melanocytes
dermis (corium)
dense, fibrous connective tissue layer of the skin
sebaceous glands
oil glands in skin
sebum
oily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands
sudoriferous glands
sweat glands (sudor = sweat; ferrer = to bear)
subcutaneous tissue
connective & adipose tissue layer just under the dermis
collagen
protein substance found in skin & connective tissue
hair
outgrowth of the skin composed of keratin
nail
outgrowth of the skin attached to the distal end of each finger & toe, composed of keratin
keratin
hard protein material found in the epidermis, hair, & nails
lesion
area of pathologically altered tissue (2 types: primary & secondary)
primary lesions
arising from previously normal skin
macule (macula)
a flat, discolored spot on teh skin up to 1 cm across (e.g. a freckle) - flat, nonpalpable change in skin color
patch
a flat, discolored area on the skin larger than 1 cm (e.g. vitilogo) - flat, nonpalpable change in skin color
papule
a solid mass on the skin up to 0.5 cm in diameter (e.g. a nevus/mole) - elevated, palpable, solid mass
plaque
a solid mass greater than 1 cm in diameter, limited to the surface of the skin - elevated, palpable, solid mass
nodule
a solid mass greater than 1 cm, which extends deeper into the epidermis - elevated, palpable, solid mass
tumor
a solid mass larger than 1-2 cm - elevated, palpable, solid mass
wheal
an area of localized skin edema (swelling) (e.g. a hive) - elevated, palpable, solid mass
vesicle
little bladder; an elevated, fluid-filled sac (blister) within or under the epidermis up to 0.5 cm in diameter (e.g. a fever blister) - elevation formed by fluid within a cavity
bulla
a blister larger than 0.5 cm (e.g. a second-degree burn) (bulla = bubble) - elevation formed by fluid within a cavity
pustule
a pus-filled sac (e.g. a pimple) - elevation formed by fluid within a cavity
secondary lesion
lesions that result in changes in primary lesions
erosion
to gnaw away; loss of superficial epidermis leaving an area of moisture but no bleeding (e.g. an area of moisture after rupture of a vesicle) - loss of skin surface
ulcer
an open sore on the skin or mucous membrane that can bleed & scar & is sometimes accompanied by infection (e.g. decubitus ulcer) - loss of skin surface
excoriation
a scratch mark (e.g. from a cat scratch) - loss of skin surface
fissure
a linear crack in the skin - loss of skin surface
scale
a thin flake of exfoliated epidermis (e.g. dandruff) - material on skin surface
crust
dried residue of serum (body liquid), pus, or blood on the skin (e.g. in impetigo) - material on skin surface
cicatrix of the skin
a mark left by the healing of a sore or would showing the replacment of destroyed tissue by fibrous tissue (cicatrix = scar) - other secondary lesion
keloid
an abnormal overgorwth of scar tissue that is thick & irregular (kele = tumor) - other secondary lesions
vascular lesions
lesions of a blood vessel - other secondary lesions
cherry angioma
a small, round, bright-red blood vessel tumor onthe skin, often on the trunk of the elderly - vascular lesion
telangiectasia, spider angioma
a tiny, red blood vessel lesion formed by the dilation of a group of blood vessels radiating from a central arteriole, most commonly seen on the face, neck or chest (telos = end) - vascular lesion
purpuric lesions
purpura; lesions as a result of hemorrhages into the skin
petechia
spot; a reddish-borwn, minute hemorrhagic spot on the skin that indicates a bleeding tendency - small purpura
ecchymosis
bruise; a black & blue mark - large purpura (chymo = juice)
epidermal tumors
skin tumors arising from the epidermis
nevus
a congenital malformation on the skin that can be epidermal or vascular - also called a mole
dysplastic nevus
a mole with precancerous changes
verruca
an epidermal tumor caused by a papilloma virus - also called a wart
eruption
appearance of a skin lesion
erythema
redness of skin
pruritus
severe itching
rash
a general term for skin eruption, most often associated with communicable disease
skin pigmentation
skin color d/t the presence of mealnin
depigmentation
loss of melanin pigment in the skin
hypopigmentation
areas of skin lacking color d/t deficient amounts of melanin
hyperpigmentation
darkened areas of skin caused by excessive amounts of melanin
suppuration
production of purulent matter (pus)
urticaria
hives;an eruption of wheals on the skin accompanied by itch (urtica = stinging nettle)
xeroderma
dry skin
alopecia
baldness; natural or unnatural deficiency of hair
comedo (pl. comedos, comedones)
a pub of sebum (oil) within the opening of a hair follicle
close comedo (whitehead)
below the skin surface with a white center
open comedo (blackhead)
open to the skin surface with a black center caused by the presence of melanin exposed to air
acne
an inflammation of the sebaceous glands & hair follicles of the skin evidenced by comedones, pustules, or nodules on the skin (acne = point)
albinism
a hereditary condition characterized by a partial or total lack of melanin pigment (particularly in the eyes, skin, & hair)
burn
an injury to body tissue caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, radiation, or gases
first-degree burn
a burn involving only the epidermis, characterized by erythema (redness) & hyperesthesia (excessive sensation)
second-degree burn
a burn involving the epidermis & the dermis, characterized by erythema, hyperesthesia, & vesications (blisters)
third-degree burn
a burn involving all the layers of the skin, characterized by the destruction of the epidermis & dermis with damage or destruction of the subcutaneous tissue
cellulitis
an acute inflammation of subcutaneous tissue resulting from a bacterial invasion through a break in the skin (cellula = small storeroom)
dermatitis (eczema)
an inflammation of the skin characterized by redness, pruritis (itching), & various lesions
atopic dermatitis (atopic eczema)
a chronic skin inflammation characterized by the appearance of inflamed, swollen papules & vesicles that crust & scale, with sever itching & burning; most outbreaks begin in infancy & are marked by exacerbations & remissions that usually clear up before adulthood; occurs in persons with atopy (a genetic hypersensitivyt to environmental irritants or allergens)
contact dermatitis
an inflammation of the skin resulting from contact with a substance to which one is allergic (e.g. chemicals in dyes, preservatives, fragrances, rubber; allergic dermatitis); or one that is a known skin irritant (e.g. acid, solvent; irritant dermatitis)
seborrheic dermatitis
redness of the skin covered by a yellow, oily, itchy scale most commonly at the hairline, forehead, & around the nose, ears, or eyelashes & developing @ any age; referred to as "cradle cap" in infants
dermatosis
any D/O of the skin
exanthematous viral disease
eruption of the skin caused by a viral disease (exanthema = eruption)
rubella
reddish; German measles - example of exanthematous viral disease
rubeola
reddish; 14-day measles - example of exanthematous viral disease
varicella
a tiny spot; chickenpox - example of exanthematous viral disease
eczema
to boil out; the term is often used interchangeably with dermatitis to denote a skin condition characterized by the appearance of inflamed, swollen papules & vesicles that crust & scale, often with sensations of itching & burning
furuncle
a boil; a painful nodule formed in the skin by inflammation originating in a hair follicle - caused by staphylococcosis
carbuncle
a skin infection consisting of clusters of furuncles (carbo = small, glowing embers)
abscess
a localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by the inflammation of surrounding tissues that heals when drained or excised (abscessus = a going away)
gangrene
an eating sore; death of tissue associated with a loss of blood supply resulting from trauma or an inflammatory or infectious process such as seen in complications of frostbite, sever burns, & conditions that affect circulation (e.g. diabetes)
herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)
transient viral vesicles (e.g. cold sores, fever blisters) that infect the facial area, especially teh mouth & nose (herpes = creeping skin disease)
herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)
sexually transmitted ulcer-like lesions of the gnetial & anorectal skin & mucosa; after initial infection, the virus lies dormant in the nerve cell root & may recur @ times of stress
herpes zoster
a viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves; usually unilateral - also known as shingles (zoster = girdle)
ichthyosis
a skin condition caused by a gene defect that results in dry, thick, scaly skin; ichthyosis vulgaris is the most common of many types (vulgaris = common)
impetigo
highly contagious, bacterial skin inflammation marked by pustules that rupture & become crusted - most offen occurs around the mouth & nostrils
keratoses
thickened areas of epidermis
actinic keratosis
localized thickening of the skin caused by excessive exposure to sunlight; a known precursor to cancer (actinic = ray; solar = sun)
seborrheic keratosis
benign wart-like lesions (seen especially on elderly skin)
lupus
a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of various parts of the body (lupus = wolf)
cutaneous lupus
limited to the skin; evidenced by a characteristic rash especially on the face, neck, & scalp
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
a more sever form of lupus involving the skin, joints, & often the vital organs (e.g. lungs, kidneys)
malignant cutaneous neoplasm
skin cancer
squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)
a malignant tumor of squamous epithelium
basal cell carcinoma (BCC)
a malignant tumor of the basal layer of the skin epidermis (the most common type of skin cancer)
malignant melanoma
a malignant tumor composed of melanocytes - most develop from a pigmented nevus over time
Kaposi sarcoma
a malignant tumor of the walls of blood vessels appearing as painless, dark bluish-purple plaques on the skin; often spreads to the lymph nodes & internal organs
onychia
inflammation of the fingernail or toenail
paronychia
inflammation of the nail fold
pediculosis
infestation with lice that causes itching & dermatitis (pediculo = louse)
pediculosis capitis
head lice (capitis = head)
pediculosis pubis
lice that generally infect the pubic region, but hair of the axilla, eyebrows, lashes, beard, or other hairy body surfaces may also be involved - also called crabs (pubis = groin)
psoriasis
an itching; a chronic recurrent skin disease marked by silver-gray scales covering red patches on the skin that result from overproduction & thickening of skin cells - elbows, knees, genitals, arms, legs, scalp, & nails are common sites of involvement
scabies
a contagious disease caused by a parasite (mite) that invades the skin, causing an intense itch - most often found @ articulations b/w the fingers or toes, elbow, etc. (scabo = to scratch)
seborrhea
a skin condition amrked by the hypersecretion of sebum from the sebaceous glands
tinea
a group of fungal skin diseases identified by the body part that is affected, including tinea corporis (body), commonly called ringworm, & tinea pedis (foot), also called athlete's foot
vitiligo
a condition caused by the destruction of melanin that results in the appearance of white patches on the skin, commonly the face, hands, legs, & genital areas
biopsy (Bx)
removal of a small piece of tissue for microscopic pathological examination
excisional Bx
removal of an entire lesion
incisional Bx
removal of a selected portion of a lesion
shave Bx
a technique using a surgical blade to "shave" tissue from the epidermis & upper dermis
culture & sensitivity (C&S)
a technique of isolating & growing colonies of microorganisms to identify a pathogen & to determine which drugs might be effective in combating the infection it has cuased
frozen section (FS)
a surgical method involving cutting a thin piece of tissue from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination
skin tests
methods for determining the reaction of the body to a given substance by applying it to, or injecting it into, the skin - commonly seen in treating allergy
scratch test
the substance is applied to the skin through a scratch
patch test
the substance is applied topically to the skin on a small piece of blotting paper or wet cloth
chemosurgery, chemical peel
technique for restoring wrinkled, scarred, or blemished skin by application of an acid solution to "peel" away the top layers of the skin
cryosurgery
destruction of tissue by freezing - involving application of an extremely cold chemical (e.g. liquid nitrogen)
dermabrasion
surgical removal of frozen epidermis using wire brushes & emery papers to remove scars, tattoos, &/or wrinkes; aerosol spray is used to freeze the skin
debridement
removal of dead tissue from a wound or burn site to promote healing & prevent infection
curettage
to clean; scraping a wound using a spoon-like cutting instrument called a curette; this technique is used in debridement
electrosurgical procedures
use of electric currents to destroy tissue - the type & strength of the current & method of application varies
electrocautery
use of an instrument heated by electric current (cautery) to coagulate bleeding areas by burning the tissue (e.g. to sear a blood vessel)
electrodesiccation
use of short, high-frequency, electric currents to destroy tissue by drying - the active electrode makes direct contact with the skin lesion (desicco = to dry up)
fulguration
to lighten; use of long, high-frequency, electric sparks to destroy tissue; the active electrode does not touch the skin
incision & drainage (I&D)
incision & drainage of an infected skin legion (e.g. an abscess)
laser surgery
surgery using a laser in various dermatological procedures to remove lesions, scars, tattoos, etc.
laser
an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; an instrument that concnetrates high frequencies of light into a small, extremely intense beam that is precise in depth & diameter; it is applied to body tissues to destroy or for dissection (cutting of parts for study)
Mohs surgery
a technique used to excise tumors of teh skin by removing fresh tissue layer by layer until a tumor-free plane is reached
skin grafting
transfer of skin from 1 body site to another to replace skin lost through burns or injury
autograft
transfer to a new position in the body of the same person (auto = self)
homograft, allograft
donor transfer b/w individuals of the same species such as human to human (homo = same; allo = other)
xenograft, heterograft
a graft transfer from 1 animal species to 1 of another species (xeno = strange; hetero = different)
chemotherapy
treatment of malignancies, infections, & other diseases with chemical agents that destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
radiation therapy
treatment of neoplastic disease by using ionizing radiation to deter proliferation of malignant cells
sclerotherapy
use of sclerosing agents in treating diseases (e.g. injection of a saline solution into a dilated blood vessel tumor in the skin, resulting in hardening of tissue within & eventual sloughing away of the lesion)
ultraviolet therapy
use of UV light to promote healing of a skin lesion (e.g. an ulcer)
anesthetic
a drug that temporarily blocks transmission of nerve conduction to produce a loss of sensations (e.g. pain)
antibiotic
a drug that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms
antifungal
a drug that kills or prevents the growth of fungi
antihistamine
a drug that blocks the effects of histamine in the body
histamine
a regulating body substance released in excess during allergic reactions causing swelling & inflammation of tissues (e.g. in urticaria (hives), hay fever)
anti-inflammatory
a drug that reduces inflammation
antipruritic
a drug that relieves itching
antiseptic
an agent that inhibits the growth of infectious microorganisms