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109 Cards in this Set

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peripheral nervous system
anterior horn cell, nerve root, limb plexus, peripheral nerve, or neuromuscular junction
peripheral nervous system
anterior horn cell, nerve root, limb plexus, peripheral nerve, or neuromuscular junction
peripheral nervous system
anterior horn cell, nerve root, limb plexus, peripheral nerve, or neuromuscular junction
For example, weakness in the right arm and leg may result from a lesion of the contralateral motor cortex or the corticospinal pathway at any point above the
fifth cervical (C5) segment of the spinal cord
For example, weakness in the right arm and leg may result from a lesion of the contralateral motor cortex or the corticospinal pathway at any point above the
fifth cervical (C5) segment of the spinal cord
The presence and distribution of any sensory abnormalities are also helpful in localizing the lesion in patients with weakness. Sensory abnormalities lateralized to the same side as weakness suggest
a hemispheric lesion
The presence and distribution of any sensory abnormalities are also helpful in localizing the lesion in patients with weakness. Sensory abnormalities lateralized to the same side as weakness suggest
a hemispheric lesion
The presence and distribution of any sensory abnormalities are also helpful in localizing the lesion in patients with weakness. Sensory abnormalities lateralized to the same side as weakness suggest
a hemispheric lesion
Wasting, or muscle atrophy, suggests that weakness is due to a lesion of the
lesion of the lower motor neurons or of the muscle itself.
Wasting, or muscle atrophy, suggests that weakness is due to a lesion of the
lesion of the lower motor neurons or of the muscle itself.
Wasting, or muscle atrophy, suggests that weakness is due to a lesion of the
lesion of the lower motor neurons or of the muscle itself.
typical hemiplegic posture
flexion of the upper limb and extension of the ipsilateral lower limb
typical hemiplegic posture
flexion of the upper limb and extension of the ipsilateral lower limb
typical hemiplegic posture
flexion of the upper limb and extension of the ipsilateral lower limb
Some patients give the impression of being unable to relax and will move the limb being examined as the physician moves it, despite instructions to the contrary. In more advanced cases, there seems to be rigidity when the examiner moves the limb rapidly but normal tone when the limb is moved slowly. This phenomenon¾
paratonia
Some patients give the impression of being unable to relax and will move the limb being examined as the physician moves it, despite instructions to the contrary. In more advanced cases, there seems to be rigidity when the examiner moves the limb rapidly but normal tone when the limb is moved slowly. This phenomenon¾
paratonia
Upper motor neuron lesions (e.g., stroke) lead to weakness that characteristically
involves the extensors and abductors more than the flexors and adductors of the arms¾and the flexors more than the extensors of the legs
Upper motor neuron lesions (e.g., stroke) lead to weakness that characteristically
involves the extensors and abductors more than the flexors and adductors of the arms¾and the flexors more than the extensors of the legs
Upper motor neuron lesions (e.g., stroke) lead to weakness that characteristically
involves the extensors and abductors more than the flexors and adductors of the arms¾and the flexors more than the extensors of the legs
On the basis of the history and other findings, muscles that are particularly likely to be affected are selected for initial evaluation, and other muscles are subsequently examined to determine the distribution of the weakness more fully and to shorten the list of diagnostic possibilities. For instance, if an upper motor neuron (pyramidal) lesion is suspected,
the extensors and abductors of the upper extremity and the flexors of the lower extremity are tested in more detail as these muscles will be the most affected.
On the basis of the history and other findings, muscles that are particularly likely to be affected are selected for initial evaluation, and other muscles are subsequently examined to determine the distribution of the weakness more fully and to shorten the list of diagnostic possibilities. For instance, if an upper motor neuron (pyramidal) lesion is suspected,
the extensors and abductors of the upper extremity and the flexors of the lower extremity are tested in more detail as these muscles will be the most affected.
On the basis of the history and other findings, muscles that are particularly likely to be affected are selected for initial evaluation, and other muscles are subsequently examined to determine the distribution of the weakness more fully and to shorten the list of diagnostic possibilities. For instance, if an upper motor neuron (pyramidal) lesion is suspected,
the extensors and abductors of the upper extremity and the flexors of the lower extremity are tested in more detail as these muscles will be the most affected.
On the basis of the history and other findings, muscles that are particularly likely to be affected are selected for initial evaluation, and other muscles are subsequently examined to determine the distribution of the weakness more fully and to shorten the list of diagnostic possibilities. For instance, if an upper motor neuron (pyramidal) lesion is suspected,
the extensors and abductors of the upper extremity and the flexors of the lower extremity are tested in more detail as these muscles will be the most affected.
On the basis of the history and other findings, muscles that are particularly likely to be affected are selected for initial evaluation, and other muscles are subsequently examined to determine the distribution of the weakness more fully and to shorten the list of diagnostic possibilities. For instance, if an upper motor neuron (pyramidal) lesion is suspected,
the extensors and abductors of the upper extremity and the flexors of the lower extremity are tested in more detail as these muscles will be the most affected.
Jendrassik maneuver
an attempt by the patient to pull apart the fingers of the two hands when they are hooked together
Jendrassik maneuver
an attempt by the patient to pull apart the fingers of the two hands when they are hooked together
Jendrassik maneuver
an attempt by the patient to pull apart the fingers of the two hands when they are hooked together
an attempt by the patient to pull apart the fingers of the two hands when they are hooked together
Jendrassik maneuver
an attempt by the patient to pull apart the fingers of the two hands when they are hooked together
Jendrassik maneuver
In addition, reflexes are often depressed during the acute stage of an upper motor neuron lesion, in patients who are deeply comatose, and in patients with
cerebellar disease.
In addition, reflexes are often depressed during the acute stage of an upper motor neuron lesion, in patients who are deeply comatose, and in patients with
cerebellar disease.
In addition, reflexes are often depressed during the acute stage of an upper motor neuron lesion, in patients who are deeply comatose, and in patients with
cerebellar disease.
In addition, reflexes are often depressed during the acute stage of an upper motor neuron lesion, in patients who are deeply comatose, and in patients with
cerebellar disease.
contractions of a muscle that is suddenly subjected to sustained stretch, with each beat caused by renewed stretch of the muscle during relaxation from its previous contracted state. Sustained clonus¾more than three or four beats in response to sudden sustained stretch¾is always pathologic and is associated with an abnormally brisk reflex.
clonus
contractions of a muscle that is suddenly subjected to sustained stretch, with each beat caused by renewed stretch of the muscle during relaxation from its previous contracted state. Sustained clonus¾more than three or four beats in response to sudden sustained stretch¾is always pathologic and is associated with an abnormally brisk reflex.
clonus
contractions of a muscle that is suddenly subjected to sustained stretch, with each beat caused by renewed stretch of the muscle during relaxation from its previous contracted state. Sustained clonus¾more than three or four beats in response to sudden sustained stretch¾is always pathologic and is associated with an abnormally brisk reflex.
clonus
eliciting the finger flexion reflex may cause flexion of the thumb
Hoffmann sign
Hoffmann sign
eliciting the finger flexion reflex may cause flexion of the thumb
eliciting the finger flexion reflex may cause flexion of the thumb
Hoffmann sign
Hoffmann sign
eliciting the finger flexion reflex may cause flexion of the thumb
Focal reflex deficits often relate to root, plexus, or peripheral nerve lesions. For example, unilateral depression of the ankle jerk commonly reflects an
S1 radiculopathy resulting from a lumbosacral disk lesion
Focal reflex deficits often relate to root, plexus, or peripheral nerve lesions. For example, unilateral depression of the ankle jerk commonly reflects an
S1 radiculopathy resulting from a lumbosacral disk lesion
Focal reflex deficits often relate to root, plexus, or peripheral nerve lesions. For example, unilateral depression of the ankle jerk commonly reflects an
S1 radiculopathy resulting from a lumbosacral disk lesion
Focal reflex deficits often relate to root, plexus, or peripheral nerve lesions. For example, unilateral depression of the ankle jerk commonly reflects an
S1 radiculopathy resulting from a lumbosacral disk lesion
Focal reflex deficits often relate to root, plexus, or peripheral nerve lesions. For example, unilateral depression of the ankle jerk commonly reflects an
S1 radiculopathy resulting from a lumbosacral disk lesion
The polysynaptic superficial abdominal reflexes, which depend on the integrity of the
T8-T12 spinal cord segments, are elicited by gently stroking each quadrant of the abdominal wall with a blunt object such as a wooden stick. A normal response consists of contraction of the muscle in the quadrant stimulated, with a brief movement of the umbilicus toward the stimulus
The polysynaptic superficial abdominal reflexes, which depend on the integrity of the
T8-T12 spinal cord segments, are elicited by gently stroking each quadrant of the abdominal wall with a blunt object such as a wooden stick. A normal response consists of contraction of the muscle in the quadrant stimulated, with a brief movement of the umbilicus toward the stimulus
The polysynaptic superficial abdominal reflexes, which depend on the integrity of the
T8-T12 spinal cord segments, are elicited by gently stroking each quadrant of the abdominal wall with a blunt object such as a wooden stick. A normal response consists of contraction of the muscle in the quadrant stimulated, with a brief movement of the umbilicus toward the stimulus
The polysynaptic superficial abdominal reflexes, which depend on the integrity of the
T8-T12 spinal cord segments, are elicited by gently stroking each quadrant of the abdominal wall with a blunt object such as a wooden stick. A normal response consists of contraction of the muscle in the quadrant stimulated, with a brief movement of the umbilicus toward the stimulus
The polysynaptic superficial abdominal reflexes, which depend on the integrity of the
T8-T12 spinal cord segments, are elicited by gently stroking each quadrant of the abdominal wall with a blunt object such as a wooden stick. A normal response consists of contraction of the muscle in the quadrant stimulated, with a brief movement of the umbilicus toward the stimulus
The cremasteric reflex, mediated through the
L1 and L2 reflex arcs, consists of retraction of the ipsilateral testis when the inner aspect of the thigh is lightly stroked; it is lost in patients with a lesion involving these nerve roots. It is also lost in patients with contralateral upper motor neuron disturbances.
The cremasteric reflex, mediated through the
L1 and L2 reflex arcs, consists of retraction of the ipsilateral testis when the inner aspect of the thigh is lightly stroked; it is lost in patients with a lesion involving these nerve roots. It is also lost in patients with contralateral upper motor neuron disturbances.
The cremasteric reflex, mediated through the
L1 and L2 reflex arcs, consists of retraction of the ipsilateral testis when the inner aspect of the thigh is lightly stroked; it is lost in patients with a lesion involving these nerve roots. It is also lost in patients with contralateral upper motor neuron disturbances.
The cremasteric reflex, mediated through the
L1 and L2 reflex arcs, consists of retraction of the ipsilateral testis when the inner aspect of the thigh is lightly stroked; it is lost in patients with a lesion involving these nerve roots. It is also lost in patients with contralateral upper motor neuron disturbances.
An extensor plantar response can also be elicited, though less reliably, by such maneuvers as pricking the dorsal surface of the big toe with a pin
(Bing sign
An extensor plantar response can also be elicited, though less reliably, by such maneuvers as pricking the dorsal surface of the big toe with a pin
(Bing sign
An extensor plantar response can also be elicited, though less reliably, by such maneuvers as pricking the dorsal surface of the big toe with a pin
(Bing sign
An extensor plantar response can also be elicited, though less reliably, by such maneuvers as pricking the dorsal surface of the big toe with a pin
(Bing sign
An extensor plantar response can also be elicited, though firmly stroking down the anterior border of the tibia from knee to ankle
Oppenheim maneuver
An extensor plantar response can also be elicited, though firmly stroking down the anterior border of the tibia from knee to ankle
Oppenheim maneuver
An extensor plantar response can also be elicited, though firmly stroking down the anterior border of the tibia from knee to ankle
Oppenheim maneuver
An extensor plantar response can also be elicited, though firmly stroking down the anterior border of the tibia from knee to ankle
Oppenheim maneuver
An extensor plantar response can also be elicited, though firmly stroking down the anterior border of the tibia from knee to ankle
Oppenheim maneuver
flicking the little toe
Gonda maneuver
flicking the little toe
Gonda maneuver
flicking the little toe
Gonda maneuver
flicking the little toe
Gonda maneuver
This gait is seen in its most extreme form in children with spastic diplegia from perinatally acquired static encephalopathy.
scissorlike.
This gait is seen in its most extreme form in children with spastic diplegia from perinatally acquired static encephalopathy.
scissorlike.
This gait is seen in its most extreme form in children with spastic diplegia from perinatally acquired static encephalopathy.
scissorlike.
This gait is seen in its most extreme form in children with spastic diplegia from perinatally acquired static encephalopathy.
scissorlike.
This gait is seen in its most extreme form in children with spastic diplegia from perinatally acquired static encephalopathy.
scissorlike.
Anterior horn cell, peripheral motor nerve, or striated muscle disorders¾ These disorders lead to gait disturbances if the muscles involved in locomotion are affected. Weakness of the anterior tibial muscles leads to foot drop; to avoid catching or scuffing the foot on the ground, the patient must lift the affected leg higher than the other, in a characteristic steppage gait. Weakness of the calf muscles leads to an inability to
walk on the balls of the feet.
Anterior horn cell, peripheral motor nerve, or striated muscle disorders¾ These disorders lead to gait disturbances if the muscles involved in locomotion are affected. Weakness of the anterior tibial muscles leads to foot drop; to avoid catching or scuffing the foot on the ground, the patient must lift the affected leg higher than the other, in a characteristic steppage gait. Weakness of the calf muscles leads to an inability to
walk on the balls of the feet.
Anterior horn cell, peripheral motor nerve, or striated muscle disorders¾ These disorders lead to gait disturbances if the muscles involved in locomotion are affected. Weakness of the anterior tibial muscles leads to foot drop; to avoid catching or scuffing the foot on the ground, the patient must lift the affected leg higher than the other, in a characteristic steppage gait. Weakness of the calf muscles leads to an inability to
walk on the balls of the feet.
Anterior horn cell, peripheral motor nerve, or striated muscle disorders¾ These disorders lead to gait disturbances if the muscles involved in locomotion are affected. Weakness of the anterior tibial muscles leads to foot drop; to avoid catching or scuffing the foot on the ground, the patient must lift the affected leg higher than the other, in a characteristic steppage gait. Weakness of the calf muscles leads to an inability to
walk on the balls of the feet.
Anterior horn cell, peripheral motor nerve, or striated muscle disorders¾ These disorders lead to gait disturbances if the muscles involved in locomotion are affected. Weakness of the anterior tibial muscles leads to foot drop; to avoid catching or scuffing the foot on the ground, the patient must lift the affected leg higher than the other, in a characteristic steppage gait. Weakness of the calf muscles leads to an inability to
walk on the balls of the feet.
Loss of superficial abdominal reflexes UMN/LMN?
UMN
Loss of superficial abdominal reflexes UMN/LMN?
UMN
Loss of superficial abdominal reflexes UMN/LMN?
UMN
Loss of superficial abdominal reflexes UMN/LMN?
UMN
A parasagittal intracranial lesion produces an upper motor neuron deficit that characteristically affects
both legs and may later involve the arms.
A parasagittal intracranial lesion produces an upper motor neuron deficit that characteristically affects
both legs and may later involve the arms.
A parasagittal intracranial lesion produces an upper motor neuron deficit that characteristically affects
both legs and may later involve the arms.
A parasagittal intracranial lesion produces an upper motor neuron deficit that characteristically affects
both legs and may later involve the arms.
lesion at the level of the internal capsule, where the descending fibers from the cerebral cortex are closely packed, commonly results in a severe hemiparesis that involves
the contralateral limbs and face
lesion at the level of the internal capsule, where the descending fibers from the cerebral cortex are closely packed, commonly results in a severe hemiparesis that involves
the contralateral limbs and face
lesion at the level of the internal capsule, where the descending fibers from the cerebral cortex are closely packed, commonly results in a severe hemiparesis that involves
the contralateral limbs and face
lesion at the level of the internal capsule, where the descending fibers from the cerebral cortex are closely packed, commonly results in a severe hemiparesis that involves
the contralateral limbs and face
A brainstem lesion commonly¾but not invariably¾leads to
bilateral motor deficits, often with accompanying sensory and cranial nerve disturbances, and disequilibrium. A more limited lesion involving the brainstem characteristically leads to a cranial nerve disturbance on the ipsilateral side and a contralateral hemiparesis
A brainstem lesion commonly¾but not invariably¾leads to
bilateral motor deficits, often with accompanying sensory and cranial nerve disturbances, and disequilibrium. A more limited lesion involving the brainstem characteristically leads to a cranial nerve disturbance on the ipsilateral side and a contralateral hemiparesis
A brainstem lesion commonly¾but not invariably¾leads to
bilateral motor deficits, often with accompanying sensory and cranial nerve disturbances, and disequilibrium. A more limited lesion involving the brainstem characteristically leads to a cranial nerve disturbance on the ipsilateral side and a contralateral hemiparesis
A brainstem lesion commonly¾but not invariably¾leads to
bilateral motor deficits, often with accompanying sensory and cranial nerve disturbances, and disequilibrium. A more limited lesion involving the brainstem characteristically leads to a cranial nerve disturbance on the ipsilateral side and a contralateral hemiparesis
A brainstem lesion commonly¾but not invariably¾leads to
bilateral motor deficits, often with accompanying sensory and cranial nerve disturbances, and disequilibrium. A more limited lesion involving the brainstem characteristically leads to a cranial nerve disturbance on the ipsilateral side and a contralateral hemiparesis
A unilateral spinal cord lesion above the C5 level causes
an ipsilateral hemiparesis that spares the face and cranial nerves. Lesions between C5 and the first thoracic segment (T1) affect the ipsilateral arm to a variable extent as well as the ipsilateral leg; a lesion below T1 will affect only the ipsilateral leg.
A unilateral spinal cord lesion above the C5 level causes
an ipsilateral hemiparesis that spares the face and cranial nerves. Lesions between C5 and the first thoracic segment (T1) affect the ipsilateral arm to a variable extent as well as the ipsilateral leg; a lesion below T1 will affect only the ipsilateral leg.
A unilateral spinal cord lesion above the C5 level causes
an ipsilateral hemiparesis that spares the face and cranial nerves. Lesions between C5 and the first thoracic segment (T1) affect the ipsilateral arm to a variable extent as well as the ipsilateral leg; a lesion below T1 will affect only the ipsilateral leg.
A unilateral spinal cord lesion above the C5 level causes
an ipsilateral hemiparesis that spares the face and cranial nerves. Lesions between C5 and the first thoracic segment (T1) affect the ipsilateral arm to a variable extent as well as the ipsilateral leg; a lesion below T1 will affect only the ipsilateral leg.
A unilateral spinal cord lesion above the C5 level causes
an ipsilateral hemiparesis that spares the face and cranial nerves. Lesions between C5 and the first thoracic segment (T1) affect the ipsilateral arm to a variable extent as well as the ipsilateral leg; a lesion below T1 will affect only the ipsilateral leg.
Brown-Sequard syndrome
If there is an extensive but unilateral cord lesion, the motor deficit is accompanied by ipsilateral impairment of vibration and position sense and by contralateral loss of pain and temperature appreciation (Brown-Sequard syndrome)
Brown-Sequard syndrome
If there is an extensive but unilateral cord lesion, the motor deficit is accompanied by ipsilateral impairment of vibration and position sense and by contralateral loss of pain and temperature appreciation (Brown-Sequard syndrome)
Brown-Sequard syndrome
If there is an extensive but unilateral cord lesion, the motor deficit is accompanied by ipsilateral impairment of vibration and position sense and by contralateral loss of pain and temperature appreciation (Brown-Sequard syndrome)
Brown-Sequard syndrome
If there is an extensive but unilateral cord lesion, the motor deficit is accompanied by ipsilateral impairment of vibration and position sense and by contralateral loss of pain and temperature appreciation (Brown-Sequard syndrome)
Brown-Sequard syndrome
If there is an extensive but unilateral cord lesion, the motor deficit is accompanied by ipsilateral impairment of vibration and position sense and by contralateral loss of pain and temperature appreciation (Brown-Sequard syndrome)
With compressive and other focal lesions that involve the anterior horn cells in addition to the fiber tracts traversing the cord, the muscles innervated by the affected cord segment weaken and atrophy. Therefore, a focal lower motor neuron deficit exists at the level of the lesion an
an upper motor neuron deficit exists below it, in addition to any associated sensory disturbance.
With compressive and other focal lesions that involve the anterior horn cells in addition to the fiber tracts traversing the cord, the muscles innervated by the affected cord segment weaken and atrophy. Therefore, a focal lower motor neuron deficit exists at the level of the lesion an
an upper motor neuron deficit exists below it, in addition to any associated sensory disturbance.
With compressive and other focal lesions that involve the anterior horn cells in addition to the fiber tracts traversing the cord, the muscles innervated by the affected cord segment weaken and atrophy. Therefore, a focal lower motor neuron deficit exists at the level of the lesion an
an upper motor neuron deficit exists below it, in addition to any associated sensory disturbance.
With compressive and other focal lesions that involve the anterior horn cells in addition to the fiber tracts traversing the cord, the muscles innervated by the affected cord segment weaken and atrophy. Therefore, a focal lower motor neuron deficit exists at the level of the lesion an
an upper motor neuron deficit exists below it, in addition to any associated sensory disturbance.
With compressive and other focal lesions that involve the anterior horn cells in addition to the fiber tracts traversing the cord, the muscles innervated by the affected cord segment weaken and atrophy. Therefore, a focal lower motor neuron deficit exists at the level of the lesion an
an upper motor neuron deficit exists below it, in addition to any associated sensory disturbance.