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23 Cards in this Set

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Social Networks
individuals linked together by one or more social relationships connecting them to a larger society

Use to get jobs or favors
Social Interactions
consists of two or more individuals purposefully relating to eachother

Directed towards a goal people hope to acheive and take place in social context
Norms
Rules that guide human interactions
Social Status
positions you hold in the social world

Statuses at each stage of life and the interactions that result form each persons unique social world
Ascribed Status
Often assigned at birth and do not change during an individual's lifetime

Gender, race, ethnicity, etc.
Achieved Status
Chosen or earned by decisions one makes and sometimes by personal ability

Guitarist in a band, prisoner in a jail, etc.
Master Status
At a particular time in life or under certain circumstances, one of an individual's statuses may become most important and take precedent over others

Dominates and shapes much of an individual's life, activities, self-concept, and position in the community for a periodof time

Occupation, parent status, etc.
Roles
Roles are the dynamic, action part of statuses in a society

They define how each individual in an interaction is expected to act

Ex. The role of a college student includes attending classes, studying, taking tests, writing papers, etc.
Role Strain
Tension between roles within one of the statuses

Causes the individual to be pulled in many directions by various obligations of the single status

ex. student can't complete work for all classes due monday
Role Conflict
Conflict is between the roles of two or more statuses

Can come from within the individual or be imposed from outside

ex. college athletes face role conflicts from competing demands of their time
Group
Refer to two or more people who interact with each other because of shared common interests, goals, experiences, and needs
Durkheim's 3 types of suicide: Egoistic Suicide
Egoistic Suicide: occurs when individual feels little social bond to the group or society and lacksties such as family or friends that might prevent suicide

result of personal despair and involves the kind of motive people associate with suicide
Durkheim's 3 types of suicide: Anomic Suicide
Occurs when a society or one of its parts is is disorder or turmoil and lacks clear norms and guidelines for social behavior

likely during major social change or economic problems such as severe depression
Durkheim's 3 types of suicide: Altruistic Suicide
Involves such a strong bond and group obligation that the individual is willing to die for the group

Self-survival becomes less important than group survival
Primary Groups
characterized by close contacts and lasting personal relationships (the most micro level)

Provide a sense of belonging and shared identity

Best friends, family, classmates, etc.
Secondary Groups
those with formal, impersonal, buisnesslike relationships

usually large and task oriented - have a specific purpose to acheive and focus on accomplishing a goal
In-group
one to which an individual feels a sense of loyalty and belonging

may also serve as a reference group and a primary group
Out-Group
one to which an individual does not belong - often a group that is in competition or opposition to an in-group
Reference Groups
composed of members who act as role models and establish standards against which all members measure their conduct

look to reference groups to set guidelines for behavior and decision making
Formal Organizations
Modern rational organizations are complex secondary groups formed to pursue and acheive certain goals

Governed by written charters, constitutions, by-laws, and procedures
Bureaucracies
a specific type of very large modern organization that is rationally designed to maximize efficiency

Characterized by formal relations between participants, clearly laid out procedures and rules, and pursuit of stated goals
Characteristics of bureaucracies
1. Divison of labor based on technical competence
2. Administrative Hierarchy
3. Formal Rules and Regulations
4. Impersonal Relationships
5. Emphasis on rationality and efficiency to reach goals
6. Provision of lifelong careers
Problems of bureaucracies
1. Alienation
2. Dissatisfaction
3. Oligarchy (power in hands of small group)
4. Goal Displacement (goals replaced by secondary goals)