• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/111

Click to flip

111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The two components of the integumentary system are the
A) epidermis and dermis.
B) cutaneous membrane and hypodermis.
C) cutaneous membrane and accessory structures.
D) integument and hypodermis.
E) epidermis and superficial fascia.
C
The type of cells that form the strata in the epidermis are
A) adipocytes.
B) keratinocytes.
C) fibroblasts.
D) melanocytes.
E) dendritic cells.
B
The tough "horny" superficial layer of the epidermis is known as the
A) stratum corneum.
B) stratum lucidum.
C) stratum germinativum.
D) stratum granulosum.
E) stratum spinosum.
A
Large quantities of keratin are found in the epidermal layer called the
A) stratum corneum.
B) stratum lucidum.
C) stratum germinativum.
D) stratum granulosum.
E) stratum spinosum.
A
Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrated through the skin is termed ________ perspiration.
A) sensible
B) insensible
C) latent
D) active
E) inactive
B
The layer of the epidermis that contains abundant desmosomes is the
A) stratum corneum.
B) stratum lucidum.
C) stratum germinativum.
D) stratum granulosum.
E) stratum spinosum.
E
The layer of the skin that provides a barrier against bacteria as well as chemical and mechanical injuries is the
A) dermis.
B) subcutaneous layer.
C) epidermis.
D) stratum corneum.
E) sebum layer.
C
) Characteristics of the epidermis include:
A) multilayered
B) flexible
C) contains desmosomes
D) serves as UV radiation protection
E) All of the answers are correct.
E
All of the following are true of epidermal ridges, except that they
A) extend into the dermis.
B) contain increased numbers of free nerve endings.
C) cause ridge patterns on the surface of the skin.
D) produce patterns that are determined genetically.
E) interconnect with the dermal papillae.
B
________ are cells in the epidermis that are part of the immune system.
A) Dendritic cells
B) Basal cells
C) Merkel cells
D) Squamous cells
E) Melanocytes
A
) Water loss from insensible perspiration
A) is negligible.
B) is too small to be measured reliably.
C) is approximately 0.5 liters a day.
D) always exceeds sensible perspiration.
E) depends on apocrine sweat glands.
C
The epidermis of the skin is composed of which type of tissue?
A) keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
B) simple squamous epithelium
C) transitional epithelium
D) areolar connective tissue
E) nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium
A
The layer of stem cells that constantly divide to renew the epidermis is the
A) stratum corneum.
B) stratum germinativum.
C) papillary layer.
D) basal lamina.
E) stratum granulosum.
B
The protein that reduces water loss at the skin surface is
A) eleidin.
B) collagen.
C) mucin.
D) keratin.
E) melanin.
D
Thin skin contains ________ layer(s) of keratinocytes, and thick skin contains ________ layers.
A) 1; 2
B) 2; 3
C) 3; 4
D) 4; 5
E) 5; 6
D
While walking barefoot on the beach, Joe stepped on a thorn that penetrated through the sole of his foot to the dermis. How many layers of epidermis did the thorn penetrate?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
E
The primary pigments contained in the epidermis are
A) carotene and xanthophyll.
B) carotene and melanin.
C) melanin and chlorophyll.
D) xanthophyll and melanin.
E) melanin and chromatin.
B
An albino individual lacks the ability to produce
A) melanin.
B) keratin.
C) carotene.
D) perspiration.
E) eleidin.
A
All of the following are true of the pigment melanin, except that it
A) decreases in concentration within cells during exposure to the sun.
B) is usually some shade of brown or black.
C) protects DNA from the damaging effects of UV radiation.
D) is produced from the amino acid tyrosine.
E) is produced by cells called melanocytes.
A
Cyanosis signifies that a patient
A) has had too much sun.
B) has been kept out of the sun.
C) has an allergic reaction.
D) has oxygen-starved skin.
E) has been exposed to cyanide.
D
Jaundice is indicated by
A) a reddish skin coloration.
B) a yellowish skin coloration.
C) an orange skin coloration.
D) a bluish skin coloration.
E) a brown skin coloration.
B
Exposure to ultraviolet light (sunlight) causes the skin to darken by increasing the production of
A) hemoglobin.
B) carotene.
C) collagen.
D) keratin.
E) melanin.
E
The ________ in keratinocytes protects the epidermis and dermis from the harmful effects of sunlight.
A) sebum
B) hemoglobin
C) melanin
D) carotene
E) keratin
C
Which of the following is not an effect of ultraviolet radiation?
A) increased activity by melanocytes
B) production of cholecalciferol within epidermal cells
C) wrinkles
D) chromosomal damage in germinative cells or melanocytes
E) vitiligo
E
An important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is
A) vitamin A.
B) vitamin B.
C) vitamin C.
D) vitamin D.
E) vitamin E.
D
Types of skin cancers include
A) squamous cell carcinoma.
B) malignant melanoma.
C) basal cell carcinoma.
D) actinic keratosis.
E) A, B, and C
E
Which of the following statements about rickets is not true?
A) is usually genetic
B) leads to weak bones
C) leads to skeletal deformity
D) prevented by vitamin D
E) prevented by sunlight
A
Children in northern regions experience months of inadequate sunlight exposure on the skin. To prevent possible abnormal bone development, what essential organic nutrient is necessary in the diet?
A) vitamin C
B) calcium
C) cholecalciferol
D) protein
E) melanin
C
Epidermal growth factor exerts which of these effects on the epidermis?
A) promotes cell division
B) stimulates keratin synthesis
C) accelerates tissue repair
D) speeds up glandular function
E) All of the answers are correct
E
The layer of the skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves that are closest to the surface of the skin is the ________ layer.
A) papillary
B) reticular
C) epidermal
D) subcutaneous
E) hypodermal
A
The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the ________ layer.
A) papillary
B) reticular
C) epidermal
D) subcutaneous
E) hypodermal
B
The protein that permits stretching and recoiling of the skin is
A) collagen.
B) melanin.
C) keratin.
D) elastin.
E) carotene.
D
Skin inflammation that primarily involves the papillary layer is termed
A) papillitis.
B) dermatitis.
C) epidermatitis.
D) superficialis.
E) melanocytis.
B
A surgical incision parallel to the lines of cleavage
A) closes and heals with relatively little scarring.
B) has a tendency to reopen.
C) heals slower than incisions made perpendicular to the lines of cleavage.
D) does not affect the healing process.
E) requires no sutures.
A
While assessing a patient, you discover that after pinching the skin on the back of the hand, it remains peaked. This is a sign of
A) hydration intoxication.
B) water intoxication.
C) dehydration.
D) advanced skin cancer.
E) malfunctioning elastin.
C
Stretch marks occur when
A) the skin is stretched in normal movements.
B) surgical incisions are made perpendicular to the skin's lines of cleavage.
C) the skin is so extensively stretched that its elastic limits are exceeded.
D) athletes overextend a muscle.
E) the hair follicles cease to produce hairs.
C
From what structure does sensible perspiration occur?  
A) 6  
B) 7  
C) 8  
D) 9  
E) 10
From what structure does sensible perspiration occur?
A) 6
B) 7
C) 8
D) 9
E) 10
E
Which layer is the primary barrier against environmental hazards?  
A) 1  
B) 2  
C) 3  
D) 4  
E) 5
Which layer is the primary barrier against environmental hazards?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
A
Which layer contains most of the accessory structures?    
A) 1  
B) 2  
C) 3  
D) 4  
E) 5
Which layer contains most of the accessory structures?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
C
An intradermal injection is administered into which layer?  
A) 1  
B) 2  
C) 3  
D) 4  
E) 5
An intradermal injection is administered into which layer?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
C
Which tissue is located in the region labeled "2"?
A) stratified squamous epithelium
B) areolar connective tissue
C) adipose tissue
D) cartilage and blood
E) reticular connective tissues
B
All of the following are true of the subcutaneous layer, except it
A) contains many blood vessels.
B) permits independent movement of deeper structures.
C) contains large amounts of adipose tissue.
D) is attached to the dermis by a basement membrane.
E) is well supplied with nerves that pass into the skin.
B
All of the following are true of the subcutaneous layer, except it
A) contains many blood vessels.
B) permits independent movement of deeper structures.
C) contains large amounts of adipose tissue.
D) is attached to the dermis by a basement membrane.
E) is well supplied with nerves that pass into the skin.
D
Accessory structures of the skin include all of the following, except
A) hair follicles.
B) sebaceous glands.
C) sweat glands.
D) epidermis.
E) nails.
D
The layer of hard keratin that coats the hair is termed the
A) medulla.
B) cuticle.
C) hair bulb.
D) root.
E) shaft.
B
Variations in hair color reflect differences in the pigment produced by
A) keratinocytes.
B) melanocytes.
C) dermal papillae.
D) soft keratin.
E) carotene cells.
B
Lanugo is found
A) on a fetus.
B) on the scalp.
C) on the palms of the hands.
D) on the soles of the feet.
E) on the palms of the hands and on the soles of the feet.
A
If the papilla of a hair follicle is destroyed,
A) the hair produced by the follicle will change from terminal to vellus.
B) the color of the hair will become lighter.
C) the texture of the hair will become coarser.
D) the hair matrix will lose its blood supply.
E) hair production will not be affected.
D
Which statement about hairs is false?
A) Eyebrows are terminal hairs.
B) Terminal hairs are in the axilla.
C) Vellus hairs are on the limbs of children until puberty.
D) A terminal hair can detach but remain in the hair follicle as a club hair.
E) Club hairs are ingrown hairs.
E
When the arrector pili muscles contract,
A) "goose bumps" are formed.
B) hairs are shed.
C) sweat is released from sweat glands.
D) shivering occurs.
E) the skin changes color.
A
Each of the following statements concerning hair is true, except one. Identify the exception.
A) The medulla is the soft core of the hair.
B) The cortex of the hair is composed of hard keratin.
C) Terminal hairs are heavy and more darkly pigmented than other types of hair.
D) Club hair is hair that has ceased growing.
E) Scalp hairs grow constantly throughout life.
E
A common cause of dandruff is
A) inflammation around sebaceous glands.
B) lack of sebaceous glands.
C) too many sebaceous glands.
D) inactive apocrine glands.
E) inactive eccrine glands.
A
Glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are ________ glands.
A) ceruminous
B) apocrine sweat
C) merocrine sweat
D) sebaceous
E) mammary
D
The ________ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty.
A) ceruminous
B) apocrine sweat
C) merocrine sweat
D) sebaceous
E) axillary
B
Sensible perspiration is produced by ________ glands.
A) ceruminous
B) apocrine sweat
C) merocrine sweat
D) sebaceous
E) mammary
C
Earwax is produced by ________ glands.
A) sebaceous
B) apocrine sweat
C) merocrine sweat
D) ceruminous
E) eccrine sweat
D
Merocrine sweat contains ________ to protect against bacteria.
A) metabolic wastes
B) water
C) penicillin
D) dermicidin
E) organic nutrients
D
The highest concentration of merocrine sweat glands is found
A) in the axillae.
B) on the chest.
C) on the palms of the hands.
D) on the upper back.
E) surrounding the genitals.
C
Each of the following statements concerning sebaceous glands and sebum is true, except one. Identify the exception.
A) Most sebaceous glands are coiled tubular glands.
B) Most sebaceous glands open into hair follicles.
C) Sebum functions to lubricate the hair and skin.
D) Sebum can function as an antibiotic.
E) Acne involves inflammation of sebaceous glands.
A
________ sweat glands are widely distributed across the body surface, ________ glands are located wherever hair follicles exist, and ________ sweat glands are found only in a few areas.
A) Sebaceous; merocrine; apocrine
B) Apocrine; merocrine; sebaceous
C) Merocrine; sebaceous; apocrine
D) Merocrine; apocrine; sebaceous
E) Apocrine; sebaceous; merocrine
C
Which of the following happens if body temperature rises above normal?
A) Circulation in the skin decreases.
B) Sweat gland activity decreases.
C) Evaporative cooling stops.
D) Blood flow to the skin increases.
E) The activity of melanocytes increases.
D
Merocrine sweat glands
A) are compound alveolar glands.
B) produce organic secretions that are metabolized by bacteria to produce body odor.
C) secrete a watery fluid directly onto the surface of the skin.
D) increase in number and activity with aging.
E) primarily function in lubricating the hairs.
C
All of the following are true of perspiration produced by merocrine sweat glands, except that it
A) is more than 99 percent water.
B) contains electrolytes and waste products.
C) helps cool the body when it evaporates.
D) helps to prevent bacteria from colonizing the skin.
E) produces the body odor characteristic of "sweating."
E
The nail body covers the
A) nail root.
B) nail bed.
C) lunula.
D) free edge.
E) hyponychium.
B
Nail production occurs at the nail
A) body.
B) bed.
C) root.
D) cuticle.
E) hyponychium.
C
The cuticle around a nail is the
A) eponychium.
B) hyponychium.
C) free edge.
D) perinychium.
E) lunula.
A
The stratum corneum just under the free-edge of a nail is the
A) hyponychium.
B) lunula.
C) eponychium.
D) nail root.
E) cuticle.
A
A child who skins his knee in a fall has a(n)
A) abrasion.
B) laceration.
C) puncture.
D) incision.
E) contusion.
A
In a penetrating wound, ________ divide to produce mobile cells that repair the dermis.
A) granulation cells
B) dendritic cells
C) macrophages
D) fibroblasts
E) muscle cells
D
The type of burn that may require a skin graft is a
A) first-degree burn.
B) second-degree burn.
C) third-degree burn.
D) partial-thickness burn.
E) epidermal burn.
C
If a fair-skinned person is sunburned, why does his or her skin turn red?
A) The blood flow to the skin increases.
B) The number of red melanocytes in the skin increases.
C) Melanocytes increase production of red pigments.
D) The blood supply to the skin decreases.
E) Increased heat causes the skin to turn red.
A
Skin can regenerate effectively even after considerable damage has occurred because
A) the epidermis of the skin has a rich supply of small blood vessels.
B) stem cells persist in both epithelial and connective-tissue components of the skin even after injury.
C) fibroblasts in the dermis can give rise to new germinal cells in the epidermis.
D) contraction in the area of the injury brings cells of adjacent strata together.
E) cells of the stratum germinativum cannot migrate to other positions in the skin.
B
The following are stages in the regeneration of skin following an injury.
1. blood clot/scab formation
2. cellular migration
3. epidermis covers granulation tissue
4. epidermis covers scar tissue
The correct order for these events is:
A) 1, 2, 3, 4
B) 4, 3, 2, 1
C) 4, 3, 1, 2
D) 3, 4, 1, 2
E) 2, 4, 1, 3
A
Scar tissue is the result of
A) large numbers of collagen fibers and relatively few blood vessels in the injured area.
B) increased numbers of epidermal layers in the area of the injury.
C) a thickened stratum germinativum in the area of the injury.
D) increased numbers of fibroblasts in the injured area.
E) a lack of sebaceous glands in the injured area.
A
During repair of the integument, fibroblasts follow areas of new capillary growth and produce ________ tissue.
A) scar
B) epithelial
C) granulation
D) pus
E) keloid
C
Treatment of full-thickness burns includes which of the following?
A) replacing fluids
B) increasing caloric intake
C) preventing infection
D) assisting tissue repair
E) All of the answers are correct.
E
Charlie is badly burned in an accident. When he reaches the emergency room, the examining physician finds that he can remove entire hair follicles from Charlie's arm when he gently pulls on a hair with his forceps. Charlie is suffering from a(n)
A) first-degree burn.
B) second-degree burn.
C) third-degree burn.
D) partial-thickness burn.
E) epidermal burn.
C
A full-thickness burn injury can be life threatening. A physician treating a burn victim would likely order all of the following, except
A) IV (intravenous) fluids and electrolytes.
B) ice packs applied to the burn area.
C) a high-calorie diet.
D) skin grafts.
E) antibiotics.
B
The effects of aging on the skin include
A) a decline in the activity of sebaceous glands.
B) increased production of vitamin D.
C) thickening of the epidermis.
D) an increased blood supply to the dermis.
E) an increased number of sweat glands.
A
Wrinkles in elderly individuals are the result of
A) increased production of epidermis.
B) loss of elastic filaments in the reticular layer of the dermis.
C) increased keratinization of the epidermis.
D) the loss of glands and hair follicles from the skin.
E) decreased thickness of the dermis.
B
Why would an elderly person be more prone to skin infections than a younger person?
A) Skin repairs take longer in the elderly.
B) The epidermis is thinner in the elderly.
C) There are fewer dendritic cells in the skin of the elderly.
D) Basal cell activity is reduced in the elderly.
E) All of the answers are correct.
D
Accumulations of fluid within the epidermis or between the epidermis and the dermis are called _______.
blisters
Rapid water loss from burned skin is an extreme form of ________ perspiration.
insensible
The pigment found in vegetables that can make the skin appear orange or yellow is called ________.
carotene
Melanin is produced by melanocytes within the stratum ________.
germinativum
The skin appearance that results from dark-red hemoglobin is called ________.
cyanosis
Four signs useful for determining if a suspicious mark on the skin is melanoma follow the ABCD mnemonic. Identify what each letter abbreviates.
A is asymmetry; B is border; C is color; and D is diameter.
A deficiency disease that illustrates the effect of integumentary system function on the structure of the skeletal system is ________.
Rickets
The most dangerous type of skin cancer is termed ________.
Malignant Melanoma
Vitamin D3 is important for proper ________ development.
Bone
Skin cancer that starts in the stratum germinativum is called ________.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
A bruise turns "black and blue" because of ________ in the dermis.
Broken blood vessels
The drug ________ increases dermal blood flow and makes the skin red
Tretinoin (Retin-A)
Fine hairs (like "velvet") that lack pigment and cover much of the body surface are called
Vellus Hairs
Coarse pigmented hairs are called ________.
Terminal Hairs
The substance called sebum is commonly known as ________.
Skin Oil
In the condition known as erythema, the skin takes on a(n) ________ color.
Reddish
A thickened area of scar tissue that is covered by a shiny, smooth epidermal surface is called a(n) ________.
Keloid
A fibrin clot that is formed over a skin wound is called a(n) ________.
Scab
The combination of fibrin clot, fibroblasts, and extensive capillary network that is formed in injured skin is called ________.
Granulation Tissue
If epithelial cell migration cannot cover a wound, ________ may be required.
Skin grafts
A bacterial infection that is often fatal in burn patients is called ________.
Sepsis
Many medications can be administered transdermally by applying patches that contain the medication to the surface of the skin. These patches can be attached anywhere on the skin except the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. Why?
Thick skin slows the rate of diffusion of the medication and thus decreases its effectiveness. In addition, excessive sweat formed on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet would make the patch fall off more readily.
Why is regional infection or inflammation of the skin usually very painful?
Inflammation of the skin is painful because sensory receptors are abundant in the skin. Changes associated with swelling stimulate the sensory receptors, resulting in a painful sensation.
Explain why the rate of dehydration is greater when a person is immersed in seawater than when in fresh water.
Salty ocean water is very hypertonic compared to bodily fluids, while fresh lake water is very hypotonic. Hence, in the sea, due to osmosis water will leave the body, accelerating the rate of dehydration. In fresh water, water will be gained.
) In a condition known as sunstroke, the victim appears flushed, the skin is warm and dry, and the body temperature rises dramatically. Explain these observations based on what you know concerning the role of the skin in thermoregulation.
When the body temperature increases, more blood flow is directed to the vessels of the skin. The red cells in the blood give the skin a redder-than-usual color and account for the victim's flushed appearance. The skin is dry because the sweat glands are not producing sweat (avoiding further dehydration). Without evaporation cooling, not enough heat is dissipated from the skin, the skin is warm, and the body temperature rises. This situation represents positive feedback operating in a disease state.
A new mother notices that her 6-month-old infant has a yellow-orange complexion. Fearful that the child may have jaundice, she takes him to her pediatrician. After examining the child and learning about the infant's diet, the pediatrician declares him perfectly healthy and advises the mother to watch the child's diet. What is likely the cause for the change in skin color?
The infant probably has a fondness for vegetables that are high in carotene, such as sweet potatoes, squash, and carrots. It is not uncommon for parents to feed babies what they will eat best. If the child consumes large amounts of carotene, the yellow-orange pigment will be stored in the skin, producing a yellow-orange skin color.
Why is a subcutaneous injection with a hypodermic needle a useful method of administering drugs?
The subcutaneous layer has a limited capillary supply and contains no vital organs; thus, the potential for tissue damage is reduced.
Explain why warm, dry climates feel cooler than warm, humid climates, even though the air temperatures are the same.
In arid environments, sensible perspiration evaporates from the skin more rapidly than in humid climates, where the air is already saturated with water. This carries heat away from the skin rapidly, leading to a cool sensation. In humid regions, the sweat does not evaporate as readily, and thus the body's cooling mechanism is hampered.
Why is scab formation important in wound healing?
Scabs temporarily restore epidermal integrity, restricting further entry of microorganisms. They also prevent the loss of fluids, maintaining internal fluid balance, and protect the delicate granulation tissue during tissue recovery.
Vanessa's 80-year-old grandmother sets her thermostat at 26°C (80°F) and wears a sweater on balmy spring days. When asked why, the grandmother says she feels cold. What is a possible cause for her feeling cold?
Most elderly people have poor blood flow to the skin. Thus, their skin becomes cold. This triggers thermal receptors in the skin to signal cold skin. The brain interprets this as a cold body temperature.