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64 Cards in this Set

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cell characteristics
genetic material, cytoplasm, plasma membrane
single circular molecule in ___
prokaryotes
double helix in nucleus in ___
eukaryotes
fills cell interior
cytoplasm
phospholipid bilayer with proteins that encloses the cell, thus separating conents from the environment
plasma membrane
Cell Theory
-all organisms composed of one or more cells
-cells are smallest living things
-cells arise by division of a previous cell
cell size is limited by a ___ to ___ ratio
surface area, volume
most cells are relatively small because as size increases, ___ increases more rapidly
volume
the longer the ___, the less surface area per unit volume
diffusion time
the net movement of particles from large to smaller concentrations
diffusion
the minimum distance two points can be apart and still be seen as two seperate points
resolution
magnify in stages using multiple lenses; resolution limited by wavelength of light
compound microscopes
electrons transmitted through specimen
transmission electron microscopes
electrons beamed into surface of specimen
scanning electron microscope
simplest organisms
prokaryotic cells
prokaryotic cells- cytoplasm is surrounded by plasma membrane in a ___ composed of peptidoglycan
rigid cell wall
carbohydrate matrix of cross-linked with short polypetides
peptidoglycan
the procedure to detect the presence of certain disease causing bacteris named after Hans Christian Gram
Gram staining procedure
bacteria that have a thick, single-layered cell wall
-purple
gram-positive
bacteria that have a multilayered cell wall
-red
gram-negative
-threadlike structures protruding from cell surface
-some proks. use these for locomotion
flagella
extensions used by proks. for the transfer of genetic material
pili
eukaryotes have compartmentalization by ___ and the presence of membrane-bound ___ that carry out specail functions
endomembrane system, organelles
plant cells have this large, membrane bound sac which stored proteins, pigments, and waste materials
central vacoule
smaller sacs that store and transpot=rt a variety of materials
vesicles
all cells are supported by this
cytoskeleton
fungi, plants, and many protisis have this
cell wall
repository for genetic material
nucleus
region of intensive ribosomal RNA synthesis
nucleoulus
the surface of the nucleus is bound by two phopholipid bilayer membranes
nuclear envelope
shallow depressions on the nuclear envelope that are filled with gatekeeper proteins
nuclear pores
DNA of eukaryotes is divided into linear ___
chromosomes
chromosomes exist as strands of ___, except during cell division
chromatin
chromosomes package ___ and ___
histones, proteins
DNA wraps tightly around clusters of histones called ___
nucleosomes
nucleosomes permit enzymes to make ___
RNA copies of DNA
compartmentalizes the cell, channeling the passage of molecules through the cell's interior
endomembrane system
synthesizes (power plant)
endoplasmic reticulum
studded with ribosomes, synthesizes proteins for export
Rough ER
few ribosomes, synthesizes carbohydrates and lipids
Smooth ER
collection of golgi bodies
golgi apparatus
the golgi bodies ___,___, and ___ molecules synthesized at one location and utilized in another
collect, package, and distribute
golgi bodies are abundant in ___ cells (glands)
secretory
most common modification of proteins passing through the GA
addition or modification of sugar chains
protein+sugar
glycoprotein
lipid+sugar
glycolipid
membrane-bound digestive vesicles that breakdown old organelles and recycle nutrients
lysosomes
enzyme-bearing, membrane-enclosed vesicles
microbodies
contains enzymes that catalyze the removal of electron
perixosome
-RNA-protein complexes outside the nucleus
-site of protein synthesis
-assembled in the nucleus
ribosomes
ribosome are made up of several molecules of ___
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
ribosomes are composed of two subunits that join to attach to ___
messenger RNA (mRNA)
-power centers of the cell
-carry out oxidative metabolism
mitochondria
the oxygen-requiring process by which energy in macromolecules is stored in ATP
oxidative metabolism
photosynthetic organelle
chloroplast
theory that proposes eukaryotic cells evolved from a symbiosis between different species of prokaryotes
endosymbiosis
network of protein fibers that supports cell shape and anchors organelles
cytoskeleton
responsible for cell movement
Actin filaments
facilitates cellular movement and moving materials withing itself such as special motor proteins
microtubules
supports the cytoskeleton's structure
intermediaate filaments
help to assemble microtubules
centrioles
center of plant cell
central vacuole
___ cells lack cell walls and form an extracellular matrix
animal
helps coordinate the behavior of all the cells in a particular tissue
extracellular matrix