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45 Cards in this Set

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Trenton
A battle led by Washington in which the continental army across the ice-filled Delaware River, and captured an exposed post, taking by surprise 900 sleeping Hessian Mercenaries (this was luck). They returned to Trenton again, this time being trapped by a large British force under Lord Cornwallis. Instead of standing and fighting, they marched secretly by night around Cornwallis’s left flank.
Saratoga
A battle in which the Continental army forced 5,800 British troops under General John Burgoyne to surrender. This is the battle that shows the French they can come into alliance with the colonists, because it showed they had hope of winning.
Charleston
British reached South Carolina and forced 6,000 men in the American Army to surrender. The defeat took Congress by surprise.
Camden
Occurred in the final years of the war in the southern theater. Cornwallis led the British army to a victory.
Yorktown
The final battle of the war. Cornwallis marched to Yorktown, Virginia hoping to establish a base of operations on the coast. Comte de Grasse cut him off from the sea while Washington encircled the British on land; forcing Cornwallis to surrender his entire army of 6,000 troops. The task of securing independence was now in the hands of the diplomats.
Valley Forge
A camp 20 miles outside of Philadelphia, where disease took the lives 2,500 American lives.
General Cornwallis
General for Britain. He was forced to surrender at Yorktown, but won battles at Camden, Charles Town, and Guilford Courthouse.
General Burgoyne
General for Britain. Forced to surrender at Saratoga. He was supposed to be a grand leader, and was so confident he carried liquor and his personal belongings with him. Resigned after Saratoga.
General Howe
Lead British troops to a costly victory at Bunker Hill. His planning also lead to Burgoyne’s failure at Saratoga. He also captured Philadelphia and New York.
General Washington
Won the battle at Trenton, and led America through most of the Revolutionary War, when appointed by the Second Continental Congress. He learned from the French and Indian War success depended on endless drilling, careful planning, and tough discipline.
Townshend Acts
This taxed paper, lead, paint, glass, and tea. Britain hoped to generate funds to pay salaries of royal governors and imperial officers so they didn’t have to rely on colonial assemblies. It leads to boycotting and more protesting, and the circular letter.
Stamp Act
Another idea of George Grenville. Required Americans to buy special seals or stamps to validate legal documents. It also taxed deeds, marriage licenses, and playing cards
Sugar Act
An act created by George Grenville that was formed in order to generate revenue from the colonies. It's purpose was to discourage smuggling and other illegalities that prevented the Navigation Acts from being profitable.
Virginia Resolves
The ideas presented to the Virginia House of Burgesses by Patrick Henry. They suggested that Americans had the right to tax themselves and that the British taxes were designed to destroy American liberty. Although they were turned down by the House of Burgesses, colonial press made it seem like they were not and the resolves became nationally accepted.
Earl of Bute
King George III original chief minister. Gained the position simply by being a friend of the kings, so gained national dislike. He lert office in 1763 because of this.
Lord Rockingham
replaced Grenville. Wanted to repeal the Stamp Act but was a terrible public speaker, so wouldn't do so until he gained public support. Encouraged English merchants to petition the Stamp Act and it was eventually repealed.
William Pitt
The man responsible for England's victory in the Seven Year's War. Defended the colonists position in repealing the Stamp Act.
Charles Townshend
The chancellor of the exchequer to William Pitt. Made the decision to pass the Townshend Acts to gain revenue from the colonies. Townshend Acts made the colonists upset by taxing things like paper, glass, paint, lead, and tea.
Quartering Act
required the colonists to house British soldiers and provide them with firewood, candles, beer, and other items.
Lord Hillsborough
England's secretary for American affairs who ordered the Massachusetts House of Representatives to take back their circular letter. He was defied by a vote of 92 to 17.
Thomas Hutchinson
royal governor of Massachusetts. He was a Loyalist and had a hard time gaining public acceptance.
"Christian Sparta"
an ideal commonwelth in which vigilant citizens would constantly guard against the spread of corruption, degeneracy, and luxury. An idea of Samuel Adams.
King George III
King from 1760-1801. Supposedly took bribes. Had Brute working with him which made the Whigs mad. He liked his army.
Patrick Henry
Was an orator and politician who helped lead to the Virginia's Independence. Did not like the stamp act, he is famous for "Give me liberty or give me death".
2nd Continental Congress
They managed the colonial warfare, and moved closer and closer towards independence, Declaration of Independence in 1776. After Treaties and armies the United States became independent.
1st Continental Congress
Twelve of the thirteen colonies met. This meeting was called because of the coercive act. They discussed the boycotts and made a list of rights and sent them to the king.
Revenue Act of 1764
Also known as the sugar act. This was set in place to make money for England. They had tried this earlier with the molasses act, but it did not work. They were just trying to make money from the money they lost in the war.
Prohibitory Act
This was set in place against the colonists rebellion. Declared and naval blockade in the colonies. The goal was to eliminate trade and make the colonies dependent on England. The colonists were going to fight back.
Declaratory Act
Was a act repealing the stamp act. They were repealing the stamp act because the boycotting was hurting the British trade. This stated that England's power was the same in both the colonies and England.
Coercive Act
Also known as the Intolerable acts. They were put in place because of four acts. They were put in place following the Boston tea party. They were hoping that these acts would stop the rebelling and stop the resistance of British. They thought parliament was taking over to much. A little while later the revolutionary war started.
Gaspee Incident
Gaspee was a British law enforcer of the unpopular trade regulations. They were chasing a pocket boat Hannah and the ship was caught on fire when it got stuck in the water.
Tea Act
Parliament was attempting to save the East India Trading company by removing the duties paid and allowing them to sell their tea at a lower price. Colonists were angry that it validated by imposing on the Townshend act.
Committee's of Correspondence
Were shadow governments lead by the colonies patriots on the eve of the American Revolution. Part of setting up the First Continental congress.
Samuel Adams
A radical leader involved in the Continental Congress who pushed towards revolt against
John Adams
A member of the Continental Congress willing to sever ties with Britain.
Thomas Paine
Wrote best selling Common Sense which provoked colonists to rebel against King George III.
Common Sense
Written by Thomas Paine. Stated that King George III should be held accountable for the injustice against the colonies.
American Crisis
A pamphlete written by Thomas Paine in 1776. Decribed the hardships of Americas soldiers.
John Locke
Written in 1690 and became American political practice. Said that all men had the right to life, libery, and property. Also justified rebellion against unjust rebellion.
Public Virtue
The sacrifice of self-interest to the public good. Necessary to prevent power from becoming corrupt.
George Grenville
Held the task of reducing England's debt. Implemented the Sugar and Stamp Acts.
Patrick Henry
Introduced 5 resolutions protesting the Stamp Act. Spoke out against Parliament and was accused of treason. However his ideas were published and called the Virginia Resolves.
Sons of Liberty
A group of men leading resistance against Britain's policies in America. They burned down a stamp distributors house in protest of the Stamp Act.
William Pitt
Led the victory of the Seven Years War. Defended the colonists against Parliaments oppresion.
The Massachusetts Circular Letter
Suggested how to thwart the Stamp Act and was spread throughout colonial assemblies. Eventually intercepted by a British official, but this only added more fuel to the colonists fire.