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42 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cognition
The processes whereby we acquire and use knowledge
Language
A flexible system of communication that uses sounds, rules gestures or symbols to convey information
Phonemes
The basic sounds that make up any language
Morphemes
The smallest meaningful units of speech, such as simple words,prefixes and suffixes
Grammar
The language rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within language.
Image
A mental representation of a sensory experience.
Concept
A mental category for classifying objects, people, or experiences.
Prototype
According to Rosch, a mental model containing the most typical features of a concept.
Linguistic relativity hypothesis
Whorf's idea that patterns of thinking are determined by the specific language one speaks.
Problem Representation
The first step in solving a problem; it involves interpreting or defining the problem.
Divergent thinking
Thinking that meets the criteria of originality, inventiveness, and flexibility and is directed at generating many possible solutions.
Convergent thinking
Thinking that is directed toward one correct solution to a problem.
Mental Set
The tendency to perceive and to approach problems in certain ways
Functional Fixedness
The tendency to perceive only a limited number of uses for an object, thus interfering with the process of problem solving.
Algorithm
A step-by-step method of problem solving that guarantees a correct solution.
Heuristics
Rules of thumb that help in simplifying and solving problems, although they do not guarantee a correct solution.
Compensatory model
A rational decision-making model in which choices are systematically evaluated on various criteria
.
Representativeness
A heuristic by which a new situate is judged on the basis of its resemblance to a stereotypical model.
Availability
A heuristic by which a judgment or decision is based on information that is most easily retrieved from memory.
Confirmation bias
The tendency to look for evidence in support of a belief and to ignore evidence that would disprove a belief.
Framing
The perspective from which we interpret information before making a decision.
Hindsight bias
The tendency to see outcomes as inevitable and predictable after we know the outcome.
Counterfactual thinking aili
Thinking about alternative realities and things that never happened.
Intelligence
A general term referring to the ability abilities involved in learning and adaptive behavior.
Triarchic theory of intelligence
Stember's theory that intelligence involves mental skills( analytical intelligence), insight and creative adaptability ( creative intelligence), and environmental responsiveness (practical intelligence).
Theory of multiple intelligences
Howard Gardener's theory that there is not one intelligence, but rather many intelligences, each of which is relatively independent of the others.
Emotional intelligence
According to Goleman, a form of intelligence that refers to how effectively people perceive and understand their own emotions and the emotions of others, and how well they can regulate and manage their emotional behavior.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Test of intelligence, developed from Binet and Simon's original scale, which set the average intelligence quotient(IQ) at 100
Intelligence quotient(IQ)
A numerical value given to intelligence that is determined from the scores on an intelligence test on the basis of a score of 100 for average intelligence.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III)
An individual intelligence test developed especially for adult; measures both verbal and performance abilities.
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children-Third Edition (WISC-III)
An individual intelligence test developed especially for school-aged children; measures verbal and performance abilities and also yields and overall IQ score.
Group tests
Written intelligence tests administered by one examiner to many people at one time.P
Performance tests
Intelligence tests that minimize the use of language.
Culture-fair tests
Intelligence tests designed to eliminate cultural bias by minimizing skills and values that vary from one culture to another
Reliability
Ability of a test to produce consistent and stable scores.
Split-half reliability
A method of determining test reliability by dividing the test into two parts and checking the agreement of score on both parts.
Validity
Ability to a test to measure what it has been designed to measure.
Content Validity
Refers to test's having and adequate sample of questions measuring the skills or knowledge it is supposed to measure.
Criterion-related-validity
Validity of a test as measured by a comparison of the test score and independent measures of what the test is designed to measure.
Mental Retardation
Condition of significantly average intelligence accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive behavior.
Giftedness
Refers to superior IQ combined with demonstrated or ability in such areas as academic aptitude, creativity, and leadership.
Creativity
The ability to produce novel and socially valued ideas or objects.